RAS Pre Exam 2008 Solved Paper GK & General Science

Rajasthan Administrative Services (RAS) 2008 G.K. and General Science paper conducted today on 7th January 7, 2009. For all Previous year RAS/RTS Papers(1991-2010) visit: RAS Exam Previous years Papers or You can follow us on FACEBOOK OR GOOGLE+
1. Minamata disease is caused by:
A. Mercury
B. Cadmium
C. Lead
D. Zinc
Ans: A
2. Govt. of rajasthan has constituted one organization to advise the govt. on reforms in economic matters is: 
A. Economic policy and reform counsel
B. Reform committee on economic policy
C. Council for economic reforms
D. Economic advisory committee:
Ans: A
3. Under which article of Indian constitution, it is the duty of the Union govt. to protect states against external aggression and internal disturbance: 
A. 355
B. 356
C. 352
D. 360
Ans: A
4. Which one of the following group of organism has significance in diagnosing the death by drowning: 
A. Lichens
B. Protozoa
C. Cyanobacteria
D. Diatoms
5. Heavy rainfall in pushkar, where does the flood occurs: 
A. Ajmer
B. Sawaimadhopur
C. Balotara
D. Sojat
Ans: C

RAS / RTS Pre Exam 2007 Solved Paper - Indian History

RAS / RTS Pre Examination 2007 - Solved Question Paper - (Indian History)
1. The Sikh Kingdom of Punjab was annexed by the English East India Company in—
(A) 1836
(B) 1839
(C) 1849
(D) 1852
Ans : (C)

2. The Kol Uprising of 1831 started in—(A) Gujarat
(B) Bengal
(C) Rajputana
(D) Chota Nagpur
Ans : (D)

3. Who led the Revolt of the Bareilly troops in 1857 ?(A) Kunwar Singh
(B) Bakht Khan
(C) Azimullah
(D) Maulvi Ahmadullah
Ans : (All the four options of the question are not correct.)
Khan Bahadur Khan, the successor of the former ruler (Nawab) of Rohilkhand, led the Revolt of the Bareilly troops in 1857.

RAS Pre 2010 Solved paper for GK & General Science

RAS Pre Question Paper Solved (India General Knowledge & General Science Section): Rajasthan Admin Services (RAS/RTS) PRE Examination Solved Question Papers of year 2010 for General Knowledge(GK) and General Science.   
For all Previous year RAS/RTS Papers(1991-2010) visit: RAS Exam Previous years Papers or You can follow us on FACEBOOK OR GOOGLE+
1.  1 Fourth buddhist council held in Kashmir under emperor:
A. Ashoka
B. Kala Ashok
C. Kanishka
D. Ajatshatru
Ans: C
Tips by www.rasexam.com:
Fourth Buddhist Council was held in the Sarvastivada tradition, said to have been convened by the Kushan emperor Kanishka, in 78 AD at Jalandhar or in Kashmir.
2. Which place is situated between valley of Ghagghar and its tributaries:
A. Aalamgirpur
B. Lothal
C. Mohan Jodaro
D. Banawali
Ans: D
3. During Mourya period the Tax on Land was collected by officer:
A. Agronomai
B. Shulka-adhyaksha
C. Sita- Adhyaksha
D. Aka-Adhyaksha
Ans: C
4. During Gupta Period, Gujarat, Bengal, Deccan and Tamil is center of:
A. Cloth Production
B. Jewellary
C. Handicrafts
D. Afeef cultivation
Ans: A
5. During Sangam period Kon, Ko and Mannan is synonyms of:
A. Prime Minister
B. Finance Minister
C. Army Chief
D. King
Ans: D
6. "Ashta Diggaj" name is used for king:
A. Shivaji
B. Krishna dev rai
C. Rajendra -I
D. Yashovardhan
Ans: B

New Chief Secretary of Rajasthan - CK Mathew

Rajasthan Government named Senior IAS officer and additional chief secretary (finance) CK Mathew as new chief secretary of Rajasthan. He will replace Salauddin Ahmed, who is retiring on February 29. A 1977-batch IAS officer, Mathew has held several important positions in the past. He is said to be among chief minister Ashok Gehlot's favourite officers due to his efficient but low-key style of working. Mathew was the secretary to Ashok Gehlot during his first stint as chief minister in state. During the previous Gehlot government, Mathew was closely associated with the CM as a secretary in his office. He started his administrative career in 1979 as sub divisional officer (SDO) in Udaipur. Thereafter he became the Collector of Barmer and Bhilwara.
About CK Mathew: Mr. Mathew, born in July 1954 hails from Thiruvananthapuram in Kerala. He is a postgraduate in English Literature, is an author of books and a compulsive blogger. “I am a Leo, but more tabby than lion. The home and hearth is where I am most comfortable. I love to read; dabble in writing. I feel good with music playing on the stereo most of the day,” his self-introduction in his blog ‘Mathewscape' says. Hailing from a family of civil servants — his father Kochu Koshy, who is 90 now, retired as chairman of the then Kerala Electricity Board and his brother is in the Civil Service — Mr. Mathew's dabbling in writing and blogging appears to be an escape from the ennui, if not cynicism, of being a bureaucrat for long.

Shortest man in World - Chandra Bahadur Dangi of Nepal

Shortest man in the World is Chandra Bahadur Dangi of Nepal. A 72-year-old Nepalese man who is about the size of a toddler on Sunday became the world's shortest person ever recorded. A doctor and Guinness World Records official measured Chandra Bahadur Dangi to confirm his height of 21.5 inches (54.6 centimeters). Guinness official Craig Glenday presented Dangi with two certificates for being the world's shortest living man and the world's shortest person recorded in Guinness' 57-year history. He is declared shortest person ever.
"I am very happy. Now I want to travel across Nepal and to foreign countries," Dangi told reporters afterward. He said he has no desire to get married or have a family of his own, but would like to meet the prime minister of Nepal soon. Dangi lives in a remote mountain village, Rhimkholi, about 250 miles (400 kilometers) west of Katmandu, with his youngest brother and his family. His five brothers are all average height.

Rajasthan 3rd Grade Teachers Recruitment 2012 Notification, Exam dates, Syllabus, Pattern, Apply Online www.exam.rajpanchayat.gov.in

Rajasthan 3rd Grade Teachers Recruitment 2012: Panchayati Raj Department, Rajasthan is going to conduct recruitment for more than 41000 3rd/Third Grader Teachers Jobs in Rajasthan via Zila Parishad / District wise in state. Rajasthan Panchayati Raj issues Notification for 41000 teachers post which contains 20% Marks for RTET Exams while remaining for Written examination held later on district Headquarter. The Rajasthan Teachers Exam Notification/ Advertisement by district zila parishad or Panchyat Raj to contains Exam Notification, Exam dates, Age, Education qualification, Paper Pattern, Last date, How to apply Online and other details has been issued by this week on Panchayati Raj Department website. Panchayati Raj Department of Rajasthan has issued Notification for IIIrd Grade Teachers Recruitment via Zila Parishad in District headquarters across state.
Job Post: IIIrd Grade Teacher
Total Post:
Rajasthan Teacher recruitment 2012 District wise Jobs Post:
Ajmer district Teachers  Notification, Total Post =1491 [ Level-1= 187, Level-2 = 1304]
Alwar district Teachers  Notification, Total Post = 1866 [Level-1 Post=470 , Level-2 Post=1396 ]
Banswara district Teachers  Notification, Total Post = 560 [Level-1 Post= 459 , Level-2 Post=101 ]
Baran district Teachers  Notification, Total Post = 1232 [Level-1 Post=288 , Level-2 Post= 944]
Barmer district Teachers  Notification, Total Post =2832 [Level-1 Post=640 , Level-2 Post=2192 ]
Bharatpur district Teachers  Notification, Total Post = 1140 [Level-1=103, Level-2=1037]
Bhilwara district Teachers  Notification, Total Post =1999 [Level-1 Post=226 , Level-2 Post=1773 ]
Bikaner district Teachers  Notification, Total Post = 881 [Level-1 Post=539 , Level-2 Post=342 ]
Bundi district Teachers  Notification, Total Post = 826 [Level-1 Post=177 , Level-2 Post= 649]
Chittorgarh district Teachers  Notification, Total Post =1972 [Level-1 Post=366 , Level-2 Post=1606 ]
Churu district Teachers  Notification, Total Post = 1081 [Level-1 Post=142 , Level-2 Post=939 ]
Dausa district Teachers  Notification, Total Post = 494 [Level-1 Post=95 , Level-2 Post=399 ]
Dholpur district Teachers  Notification, Total Post =626[Level-1 Post=135, Level-2 Post=491]
Dungarpur district Teachers  Notification, Total Post =235 [Level-1 Post=231 , Level-2 Post=4 ]
Hanumangarh district Teachers  Notification, Total Post =751 [Level-1 Post=99 , Level-2 Post=652 ]
Jaipur district Teachers  Notification, Total Post = 568 [ Primary Education = 155, Upper Primary=413]
Jaisalmer district Teachers  Notification, Total Post = 505[Level-1 Post=303, Level-2 Post=202]
Jalor district Teachers  Notification, Total Post =1478 [Level-1 Post=355 , Level-2 Post=1123]
Jhalawar district Teachers  Notification, Total Post =1465 [Level-1 Post= 224, Level-2 Post=1241]
Jhunjhunu district Teachers  Notification, Total Post = 20 [Level-1 Post= 14, Level-2 Post=6]
Jodhpur district Teachers  Notification, Total Post =1677 [Level-1=1097, Level-2=580]
Karauli district Teachers  Notification, Total Post =472 [Level-1 Post=94 , Level-2 Post=378]
Kota district Teachers  Notification, Total Post =692 [Level-1 Post=117 , Level-2 Post=575]
Nagaur district Teachers  Notification, Total Post =3022 [Level-1 Post=741 , Level-2 Post=2281]
Pali district Teachers  Notification, Total Post =2614 [Level-1 Post=602 , Level-2 Post=2012]
Pratapgarh   district Teachers  Notification, Total Post =1174 [Level-1 Post=527 , Level-2 Post=647]
Rajsamand district Teachers  Notification, Total Post =2072 [Level-1 Post=379 , Level-2 Post=1693]
Sawai Madhopur district Teachers  Notification, Total Post = 473 [ Primary = 147 , Upper Primary= 326]
Sikar district Teachers  Notification, Total Post = 704[Level-1 Post=208, Level-2 Post=496]
Sirohi district Teachers  Notification, Total Post = 720[Level-1 Post=264 , Level-2 Post=456]
Sri Ganganagar district Teachers  Notification, Total Post = 1038[Level-1 Post=323 , Level-2 Post=715]
Tonk district Teachers  Notification, Total Post =586 [Level-1 Post=141 , Level-2 Post=445]
Udaipur district Teachers  Notification, Total Post = 2278 [Level-1=761, Level-2=1517]
Application Fee : Rs. 250/- (Rs. 150/- for OBC and Rs.50/- for SC/ST) plus Rs.40/- online portal charges.Education Qualification:
LEVEL 1 ( Class 1 to 5 ):
Minimum 50% Marks in 12th or other qualification as per ruels, Please refer detail Notification to clarify. &  LEVEL 2 ( Class 5 to 8 ): Graduation with B.Ed or other qualification as per ruels, Please refer detailed Official Notification to clarify the exact qualification details.
Reservation: As per Govt. of Rajasthan.
Pay: Fixed pay of Rs. 8950 during probation, after two year will be placed in Pay Scale of Rs. 5200-20200 Grade Pay 2800
Age: 18-35, Relaxation as per rules
Paper Patter: 3rd Grade teachers paper will be of 2 Hour duration with 200 Objective type questions for both Level-1 & Level-2 Exam 2012.
How to Apply : Apply Online at RPSC website http://www.exam.rajpanchayat.gov.in/ on or before 2nd April 2012. For online application candidate requires SCAN Photo, Right tumb impression & Signature with Size less than 100 KB, Dimension less than 500 and Picture Format is JPEG or any standard format (Better select JPEG Format)
Important date:
Online application start date: 2nd March 2012
Last date of Application: 2nd April 2012
Examination dates: 13th May 2012. Examination for Level-1( I to V) & Level-2(V to VIII) will be held on same day on different time at District/ Block headquarters on 13th May 2012.
Courtesy: www.rajasthantalkies.com

IAS Exam 2011 Solved Paper 1 & Paper 2

Indian Administrative Services(IAS) Exam 2011 Paper 1 & Paper 2 Solved Question paper with possible section from where questions are asked with possible marks distributions are attached as shared by one of our Anonymous Reader (We urge please do mention name, so that we alll know your contribution).

Highest Rainfall in India - Mawsynram, Meghalaya

Highest Rainfall in India: Mawsynram is a village in the East Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya state in north-eastern India, 56 kilometers from Shillong. It is reportedly the wettest place on Earth, with an annual rainfall of 11,872 millimetres (467.4 in). According to the Guinness Book of World Records Mawsynram received 26,000 millimetres (1,000 in) of rainfall in 1985. Mawsynram, located about 15 km north-west of Cherrapunji in the state of Meghalaya (India) appears to be the wettest place in the world or the place with the highest average annual rainfall
Three reasons for high rainfall at Mawsynram:

1. The warm moist winds of the northward-moving air from the Bay of Bengal during the monsoon, which cover an extensive area but are forced to converge into the narrower zone over the Khasi Hills, thus concentrating their moisture.
2. The alignment of the Khasi Hills (east to west) places them directly in the path of the airflow from the Bay of Bengal, producing a significant uplift (plus cooling, further condensation and thus more rain).
3. Finally, uplift over the Khasi Hills is virtually continuous in the monsoon period because the lifted air is constantly being pulled up by vigorous winds in the upper atmosphere, hence the rainfall is more or less continuous.
Take a Look of Mawsynram on Youtube http://youtu.be/D7L9HgYvFhM

Rivers in India

Rivers in India: Rivers of India play an important role in the lives of the Indian people. The river systems provide irrigation, potable water, cheap transportation, electricity, and the livelihoods for a large number of people all over the country. Rivers can be divided into Four Major River systems in India.
Ganges/Ganga River System: The major river Ganges,and its tributaries like Yamuna, Son, and Gandak. The main river, the holy Ganges forms by the joining of the Alaknanda River and Bhagirathi River at Devprayag. The Bhagirathi, which is considered the Ganges' true source, starts from Gomukh . Known as the Padma River in Bangladesh, it joins the Jamuna River/Brahmputra. The Brahmaputra is longer, but most of its course is not in India.The Ganges Brahmaputra river system forms the largest delta in the world known as the Sunderbans before emptying into the Bay of Bengal.
Indus/Sindhu River System: The Indus River originates in the northern slopes of the Kailash range near Lake Mansarovar in Tibet. Although most of the river's course runs through neighbouring Pakistan, a portion of it does run through Indian territory, as do parts of the courses of its five major tributaries - Beas, Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi and Sutlej.
Brahmaputra River System: Brahmaputra originates in Tibet, near the sources of the Indus and the Sutlej. It is about 2,900 kilometres long. In Tibet, where it is known as the Yarlung Zangbo River, or Tsangpo, it flows east, parallel to the Himalayas. Reaching Namjagbarwa, it turns south and enters India in Arunachal Pradesh, where is it known as Dihang. In Assam it is called the Brahmaputra. Just before entering Bangladesh it splits into two distributaries, the larger of which is called the Jamuna River.
Peninsular/Prayaydwipiya River System: The main water divide in peninsular rivers is formed by the Western Ghats, which run from north to south close to the western coast. Most of the major rivers of the peninsula such as the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri flow eastwards and drain into the Bay of Bengal. These rivers make delta at their mouth. The Narmada and Tapi are the only long rivers, which flow west and make esturies.

How to apply for RAS Exam Online if outside Rajasthan / Other state Candidates

How to apply for RAS Exam Online from outside Rajasthan/ Other state Candidates: How to apply for RAS Exam Online if living outside Rajasthan because of Job or if you are Other state Candidates, This is one of common question amongst candidates who want to apply for RAS/RTS Exam 2012. As there are many candidates working or studying in Delhi, Bangalore, Mumbai, Chennai, Chandigarh, Bhopal, Noida, Gurgaon or any other state or any part of world. Don't worry Applying for RAS Exam Online is too easy, you just have to follow simple steps:
1. SUBMIT FEE: Submit required Fee at CSC/ Jan Suvida Kendra/ e-Mitra available across Rajasthan or ask your friend(Living in Rajasthan) to submit fee, For submission of fee all require is Four details:
i) Name of Candidate
ii) Fathers Name
iii) Date of Birth
iv) Fee Amount.
Once fee is submitted at CSC/e-Mitra, He will provide you a 16 digit TOKEN Number, Just ask your friend to Send Token ID.
2. SCAN PHOTO, SIGN: Now payment of fee part is over, you all need is to apply Online from RPSC Website, Before applying prepare your SCAN Photo & Signature with Size less than 100 KB, Dimension less than 500 and Picture Format is JPEG or any standard format (Better select JPEG Format)
3. APPLY ONLINE: Now apply online at RPSC Website http://rpsconline.rajasthan.gov.in/
Select Payment Mode = Payment By Kiosk, Click over Proceed Button
Enter Token No. and DOB and Click over Validate Button.
Now once you FEE Token No. is validated, you will get a 1 Page Simple Form for with basic details like Name, DOB, Exam center, Qualification(Only Division, No Marks), Category, Photos, Sign etcs. 
Fill the Form and Submit, If some error is there it will show with reason during submission.
One successful submission of form, you will get 11 digit Application ID for submitted form.
You are done !
You can check application status with Application ID at http://rpsconline.rajasthan.gov.in/applicationDetailReport with Token No/ Mobile No. and DOB.

RAS Exam 2008 Question Paper Solved - Geography

RAS Pre Exam 2008 Question Paper Solved - Geography:

R.A.S./R.T.S. (Pre.) Exam., 2008
(Held on 7-1-2009)
Geography : Solved Paper

1. Which of the following statements about the shape of the Earth is correct?
(A) It is oblate spheroid
(B) It bulges slightly at the poles
(C) It is a little flattened at the Equator
(D) It is exactly spherical in shape without any bulge at any place

2. Which one of the following is the correct sequence of landforms developed under fluvial cycle of erosion?
(A) Gorge, flood plain, piedmont plain, delta
(B) Gorge, piedmont plain, flood plain, delta
(C) Gorge, piedmont plain, delta, flood plain
(D) Piedmont plain, gorge, flood plain, delta

3. Spring equinox falls on
(A) March 21
(B) June 21
(C) September 23
(D) December 22

4. Relative humidity refers to
(A) Absolute amount of water vapour in the atmosphere
(B) The amount of hygroscopic nuclei in the atmosphere
(C) Saturated vapour pressure
(D) Rate of actual amount of water vapour in the air to the amount it could hold at that temperature

5. Solar energy which reaches the earth surface is called
(A) Radiated energy
(B) Radiant
(C) Sunlight
(D) Conduction

6. A broad channel where the waters of a river and a sea mingle is called—
(A) a delta
(B) an estuary
(C) a harbour
(D) a strait

7. Assertion (A) : In orographic nature of rainfall, the windward slope of a mountain range gets more rainfall than the lea ward slope.
Reason (R) : The warm and humid air that descends down the slope get warmed up and dry.
Codes :
(A) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true.

8. During which period did the domestication of plants and animals take place ?
(A) Paleolithic period
(B) Mesolithic period
(C) Neolithic period
(D) Dark age

9. What is the main occupation of Eskimos ?
(A) Summer cultivation
(B) Winter woodwork
(C) Fishing and Hunting
(D) Handicrafts

10. The process of gradual spread over space of people or ideas from the centre of origin is known as—
(A) Distribution
(B) Diffusion
(C) Innovation

(D) Decentralization
11. Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched ?
(A) Masai — Matagonia
(B) Kirghiz — Kazakhstan
(C) Melanesians — Malaysia
(D) Pygmies — Tanzania

12. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists—
List-I (Tribe)
(a) Jarwa
(b) Todas
(c) Angami
(d) Saura
List-II (Occupation)
1. Shifting cultivation
2. Terraced cultivation
3. Pastoral
4. Food gathering
Codes :
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) 3 4 1 2
(B) 4 3 1 2
(C) 4 3 2 1
(D) 3 4 2 1

13. Which one of the following agricultural pattern is not practiced in Western Europe ?
(A) Dairy farming
(B) Mixed farming
(C) Market gardening
(D) Intensive subsistence farming

14. Which of the following statements are correct ?
1. Lignite and low grade bituminous coal were formed during the Quaternary period.
2. Dolomite is used as refractory material and flux in iron and steel industry.
3. Chhota Nagpur Plateau is the most extensive, rich and diversified mineral belt.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below :
(A) 1, 2 and 3
(B) 1 and 2
(C) 2 and 3
(D) 1 and 3

15. Assertion (A) : All biotic resources are renewable.
Reason (R) : Biotic resources can reproduce and regenerate their population as long as environmental conditions remain favourable.
Of these statements—
(A) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(C) (A) is false but (R) is true.
(D) (A) is true but (R) is false.

16. Which of the folllowing pairs are correctly matched ?
Industrial Region Major Industrial Centres
1. Ukraine Krivoy Rog
2. Kuzbas Novosibirsk
3. Central Asia Karaganda
4. Volga Moscow
Select the correct answer using the codes given below—
Codes :
(A) 1 and 3
(B) 1 and 2
(C) 2 and 3
(D) 1, 2 and 3

17. The extensive coffee plantation in Brazil is called—
(A) Fazendas
(B) Trasil
(C) Corrals
(D) Estancias

18. Myanmar is industrially backward because of—
(A) Easy livelihood from agriculture
(B) Uneven land surface
(C) Limited local market
(D) Lack of iron ore and coal

19. If the map drawn to a scale of 1 cm to 30 km is to be enlarged three times, then representative fraction of the enlarged map will be—
(A) 1 : 1,000,000
(B) 1 : 3,000,000
(C) 1 : 6,000,000
(D) 1 : 9,000,000

20. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists—
List-I (Instruments)
(a) Planimeter
(b) Pantograph
(c) Parallex bar
(d) Clinometer
List-II (Purpose)
1. Measures angles and slopes on ground
2. Calculation of areas on maps
3. Enlargement and reduction of maps
4. Measures the elevation from the photographs
Codes :
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) 4 2 3 1
(B) 2 1 3 4
(C) 2 3 4 1
(D) 1 3 4 2

21. The contours merge and run as a single line for a short distance in the case of a—
(A) Cliff
(B) Knobe
(C) Gorge
(D) Re-entrant

22. What are Cadastral maps used for ?
(A) To show the boundaries of fields and buildings
(B) To show urban areas
(C) To demarcate wasteland
(D) To demarcate land use pattern

23. Ergograph relates to
(A) Relative humidity and rainfall
(B) Temperature and rainfall
(C) Climate and growing season of crops
(D) Rainfall and winds

24. A line on a map joining points in the oceans that have equal salinity is called—
(A) Isobath
(B) Isocline
(C) Isohaline
(D) Isogonic

25. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists—
List-I (Mountains)
(a) Andes
(b) Appalacian
(c) Vesuvius
(d) Catskill
List-II (Type)
1. Old folded
2. New folded
3. Residual
4. Volcanic
Codes :
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) 2 1 4 3
(B) 1 4 3 2
(C) 3 2 4 1
(D) 4 3 2 1

26. Conventional storms in the Atlantics are known as—
(A) Hurricanes
(B) Typhoons
(C) Cyclones
(D) Tornadoes

27. Consider the following statements and select correct answer from the codes given below :
Assertion (A) : Podzol soils are poor in bases.
Reason (R) : They develop in tropical areas.
Codes :
(A) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true.

28. The largest number and widest variety of plants and animals would be found in—
(A) Tropical grasslands
(B) Tropical forests
(C) Temperate forests
(D) Temperate grasslands

29. A natural region has the similarity of—
(A) climate and natural vegetation
(B) climate and occupation
(C) soil and drainage
(D) economic base and natural vegetation

30. Consider the following statements and select correct answer from the codes given below—
Assertion (A) : The population of the world has experienced an unprecedented growth during the 20th Century.
Reason (R) : Rapid advances in medical technology reduced death rate of population very significantly during the 20th
Codes :
(A) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true.

31. Which one of the following is the most significant ecological determinant of population distribution in the world ?
(A) Physical features
(B) Mortality rate
(C) Land fertility
(D) Climate

32. Population growth in most of the developing countries of Asia is determined by—
(A) Birth rate and migration
(B) Migration and death rate
(C) Birth rate, death rate and migration
(D) Birth rate and death rate

33. The people of which country are known as Magyars ?
(A) Hungary
(B) Slovakia
(C) Austria
(D) Romania

34. Non-commercial pastoral nomadism is a way of life in the—
(A) Velds of South Africa
(B) Steppes of Mangolia
(C) Prairies of Canada
(D) Australian downs

35. Consider the following statement and select correct answer from the codes given below :
Assertion (A) : When British Rule ended in India, many Anglo-Indians migrated to Australia.
Reason (R) : Some migrations are caused by religious attraction.
Codes :
(A) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true.

36. Hunting and fishing is the main occupation of the people living in—
(A) Equatorial regions
(B) Polar regions
(C) Temperate grasslands
(D) Semi-desertic regions

37. There are rich fishing grounds off the coast of Peru and Chile for the reason of—
(A) Shallow continent shelf
(B) Convergence of cold and warm currents
(C) Upwelling of water from deeper layers
(D) Flow of warm ocean currents

38. Consider the following statement and select the correct answer from the codes given below :
Assertion (A) : The boundary marking the termination of tree growth is known as timber line.
Reason (R) : Its location is determined by the amount of moisture, exposure, evaporation and depth of snow.
Codes :
(A) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true.

39. The breed of sheep which produces the best quality wool is—
(A) Kutchi
(B) Merino
(C) Chokla
(D) Magra

40. Agriculture involving both crops and livestock is called—
(A) Intensive farming
(B) Extensive farming
(C) Mixed farming
(D) Double farming

41. Laterization process forms—
(A) A layer rich in minerals
(B) A layer rich in iron contents
(C) A layer rich in living organisms
(D) A layer rich in calcium

42. Which one of the following countries leads in export of condensed milk ?
(A) India
(B) Belgium
(C) Italy
(D) Netherlands

43. Which one of the following is not true about Singapore, the smallest country in Southeast Asia ?
(A) Has no natural resources
(B) Has the highest per capita income in whole of Southeast Asia
(C) Has non-strategic location
(D) Has well-educated population

44. Which one of the following countries in Southwest Asia has the largest well-irrigated farmland ?
(A) Lebanon
(B) Syria
(C) Iraq
(D) Jordan

45. Which one of the following regions is called as ‘rust belt’ of Japan ?
(A) Northern Honshu
(B) Southern Honshu
(C) Shikoku Islands
(D) Kyushu Islands

46. Which one of the following countries in East Asia adopted ‘Great Leap Forward’ policy for its rapid socio-economic transformation ?
(A) Japan
(B) Korea
(C) Taiwan
(D) China

47. Which one of the following statements is not true about U.S.A. ?
(A) Is the largest market economy in the world
(B) Has a federal system of governance
(C) Is a highly urbanised and metropolized country
(D) Rural areas in Southern America are highly rich

48. Two Russian terms which entered the English language during Mikhail Gorbachev’s restructuring of the Soviet Union in the late 1980s were—
(A) Bolshevik and Menskevik
(B) Perestroika and Zaibatsu
(C) Novgoroad and Glasnost
(D) Perestroika and Glasnost

49. Russia’s main trading partner(s) is/are—
(A) Other CIS countries
(B) China
(C) Western Europe
(D) Japan

50. The Mount Everest falls along the natural boundary between—
(A) India and Nepal
(B) India and China
(C) Nepal and China
(D) Pakistan and China

51. The correct monsoon sequence (Season/Climatic conditions) is—
(A) Summer/Wet; Winter/Dry
(B) Summer/Dry; Winter/Wet
(C) Summer/Cold; Winter/Warm
(D) Summer/Mild; Winter/Wet

52. Which one of the following Indian States has the longest coastline ?
(A) Maharashtra
(B) Tamil Nadu
(C) Karnataka
(D) Andhra Pradesh

53. In India, the problem of soil erosion is associated with—
1. Excessive rainfall
2. Deforestation
3. Excessive Cultivation
4. Overgrazing
Codes :
(A) 1 and 2 are correct
(B) 1, 2 and 3 are correct
(C) 2, 3 and 4 are correct
(D) 2 and 4 are correct

54. Which one of the following types of forest grows in the shaded portion of the given rough outline map of India ?
(A) Mixed deciduous
(B) Tropical Savannah
(C) Semi-arid Scrub lands
(D) Mangrove forests

55. Consider the following statement and select correct answer from the codes given below—
Assertion (A) : Offshore fishing in Malabar coast is more developed than that in the Coromandel coast.
Reason (R) : Malabar coast has better facilities to export sea fish to African countries.
Codes :
(A) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true.

56. The group of States having the forest cover of more than 75 per cent to the total geographical area is—
(A) Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland
(B) Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland
(C) Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland
(D) Arunachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Nagaland

57. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists—
List-I (Cattle Breed)
(a) Gir
(b) Alambadi
(c) Dangi
(d) Deoni
List-II (State)
1. Tamil Nadu
2. Maharashtra
3. Gujarat
4. Andhra Pradesh
Codes :
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) 1 2 3 4
(B) 2 3 4 1
(C) 3 1 4 2
(D) 3 1 2 4

58. Which one of the following States has the highest livestock density in the country ?
(A) Rajasthan
(B) Madhya Pradesh
(C) Uttar Pradesh
(D) Maharashtra

59. Consider the following statement and select correct answer from the codes given below—
Assertion (A) : Indian agriculture is no longer the gamble of the monsoons.
Reason (R) : There is recent expansion of dry land farming in India.
Codes :
(A) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true.

60. Which one of the following is associated with Indian Agriculture ?
(A) I.C.A.R.
(B) I.C.C.R.
(C) I.C.M.R.
(D) I.C.W.A.

61. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists—
List-I (Name of Crop)
(a) Rice
(b) Jowar
(c) Jute
(d) Coffee
List-II (State Growing)
1. Maharashtra
2. Orissa
3. Karnataka
4. West Bengal
Codes :
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) 1 2 3 4
(B) 2 3 4 1
(C) 3 4 1 2
(D) 2 1 4 3

62. Which of the following dams has generation of power more than irrigation as its main aim ?
(A) Gandhi Sagar
(B) Hirakud
(C) Periyar
(D) Tunghabhadra

63. Consider the following—
1. Hematite
2. Magnetite
3. Limonite
4. Siderite
Which of the above are iron ore ?
(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1, 2 and 3 only
(C) 1, 2 and 4 only
(D) 1, 2, 3 and 4

64. Which Government agency is responsible for mapping and exploration of minerals in India ?
(A) Survey of India
(B) Geological Survey of India
(C) Minerals Development Corporation
(D) Indian School of Mines

65. Which one of the following is not a source of geothermal energy ?
(A) Hot Geyser
(B) Hot Spring
(C) Coal
(D) Volcano

66. Malvika Steel Plant, the first fully integrated steel plant in North, India, was set up in—
(A) Bihar
(B) Himachal Pradesh
(C) Uttar Pradesh
(D) Punjab

67. Which of the following places is not associated with fertilizers ?
(A) Panipat
(B) Alwaye
(C) Namrup
(D) Ranchi

68. The New Industrial Policy was introduced in India in the year—
(A) 1987
(B) 1991
(C) 1993
(D) 1998

69. During which Census decade, sex-ratio in India registered the sharpest decline ?
(A) 1911-12
(B) 1921-31
(C) 1951-61
(D) 1961-71

70. Which one of the following shows the correct sequence in descending order of population of the four metropolis as per 2001 Census ?
(A) Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai
(B) Kolkata, Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai
(C) Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Delhi
(D) Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai

71. What is the most favoured location of settlements in the mountainous regions ?
(A) Valley bottoms
(B) Ridge tops
(C) Valley side slopes
(D) Hill top

72. Largest buyers of goods exported from India is—
(A) Asia and Oceania region
(B) North America
(C) Latin America
(D) Western European region

73. The following countries are the major trading partners of India. Using codes given below their names, put these countries in sequential order of their share in total trade of India—
1. U.S.A.
2. China
3. Hong Kong
4. United Arab Emirates (UAE)
Codes :
(A) 1, 4, 3 and 2
(B) 2, 1, 4 and 3
(C) 4, 3, 1 and 2
(D) 1, 2, 3 and 4

74. Which one of the following public sector agencies in India is not associated with promotion of international trade ?
(A) State Trading Corporation (STC)
(B) Minerals and Metals Trading Corporation (MMTC)
(C) Projects and Equipment Corporation of India (PEC)
(D) Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Limited (IDPL)

75. Consider the following statement and select correct answer from the codes given below—
Assertion (A) : The Rajasthan desert is covered with shifting sand dunes.
Reason (R) : For want of rain and surface flowing of water, the work of wind is felt everywhere.
Codes :
(A) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true.

76. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists—
List-I (Summit)
(a) Dodabetta
(b) Nanda Devi
(c) Amarkantak
(d) Guru Sikhar
List-II (Mountain Range)
1. Nilgiri Hills
2. Himalaya Mountains
3. Aravali Range
4. Maikal Range
Codes :
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) 2 1 3 4
(B) 3 2 1 4
(C) 1 2 4 3
(D) 4 1 2 3

77. The climate around Bikaner can be described as—
(A) Mediterranean type
(B) Semi-arid steppe
(C) Hot desert
(D) Tropical monsoon
78. Which one of the following statements is not correct about the soils found in Western Rajasthan ?
(A) Contain sand interrupted by low rocky projections
(B) Contain a lot of soluble salts in the top layer
(C) Are the least leached soils and lack in humus also
(D) Are poor in phosphate but rich in nitrogen
79. Which one of the following statements is not correct about the vegetation found in Rajasthan ?
(A) Height of trees and density of plant cover is low
(B) Xerophytic plants are common
(C) The nature of vegetation does not change with variations of habitat
(D) Available forests are a good source of fuel wood and minor forest products

80. Which one of the following statements is not true about Western Arid region of Rajasthan ?
(A) This is the largest area size region in the State
(B) Bajra is the most prominent crop of the region
(C) Rural settlements are highly disperse and small in size
(D) Rainfall goes on increasing as one moves from east to west direction in the region

81. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists—
List-I (Livestock Breed)
(a) Rathi
(b) Kankrej
(c) Mallani
(d) Gir
List-II (District)
1. Nagaur
2. Jaisalmer
3. Sirohi
4. Ajmer
Codes :
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) 1 2 3 4
(B) 2 3 4 1
(C) 3 4 1 2
(D) 2 3 1 4

82. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below—
List-I (Mining Area)
(a) Lunkaransaur
(b) Zawar Mines
(c) Deogarh
(d) Champa-gudha
List-II (Mineral Wealth)
1. Berryllium
2. Gypsum
3. Lead and Zinc
4. Mica
Codes :
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) 1 2 3 4
(B) 2 3 4 1
(C) 3 4 2 1
(D) 4 2 1 3

83. Which one of the following statements is not correct ?
(A) According to 2001 Census, the largest and the smallest population size districts in Rajasthan State are Jaipur and Jaisalmer, respectively
(B) At 2001 Census, the largest and the smallest area size districts in Rajasthan State were Jaisalmer and Dholpur, respectively
(C) Five new districts were created in Rajasthan between 1991 and 2001 Census decades
(D) According to 2001 Census, the highest and the lowest literacy districts in Rajasthan State were Jaipur and Dungarpur, respectively

84. Which one of the following shows the correct sequence in descending order of decadal growth of population in the four districts of Rajasthan State during 1991-2001 ?
(A) Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Bikaner, Barmer
(B) Jaisalmer, Barmer, Jaipur, Bikaner
(C) Jaisalmer, Bikaner, Barmer, Jaipur
(D) Bikaner, Barmer, Jaipur, Jaisalmer

85. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below—
List-I (Lake)
(a) Nakki Talab
(b) Sambhar
(c) Pichola
(d) Gadsisar
List-II (District)
1. Jaisalmer
2. Udaipur
3. Sirohi
4. Jaipur
Codes :
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) 1 2 3 4
(B) 2 3 4 1
(C) 3 4 1 2
(D) 3 4 2 1

86. Consider the following statement and select correct answer from the codes given below—
Assertion (A) : Rajasthan is mainly a region of interior drainage.
Reason (R) : It is mainly a structural basin surrounded by hill ranges.
Codes :
(A) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true.

87. Which one of the following statements is not correct about River Luni ?
(A) The Luni is a river of Western Rajasthan
(B) It originates in the Pushkar valley of the Aravalli Range in Ajmer District
(C) It is also known as Lavanavari river
(D) The Luni and its tributaries drain the eastern slopes of the Aravali range

88. The Rajasthan Canal (Indira Gandhi Canal) draws its water from the river—
(A) Sutlej
(B) Yamuna
(C) Chambal
(D) Sutlej and Beas

89. Chambal is the joint project of—
(A) Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh
(B) Madhya Pradesh and Bihar
(C) Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan
(D) Uttar Pradesh and Bihar

90. Which one of the following problems is not encountered in Indira Gandhi Canal command area ?
(A) Increase in soil salinity
(B) Progressive waterlogging
(C) Aeolian silting of canal
(D) Decline in water supply

91. What are Didwana and Pachpadra famous for ?
(A) Copper
(B) Lead and Zinc
(C) Salt
(D) Gypsum

92. In List-I industrial sectors has been listed, while in List-II are listed the location of industrial complexes. Match the two lists using the correct code, given ahead—
List-I (Industrial Sector)
(a) Gems and Jewellery
(b) Hosiery
(c) Ceramics
(d) Textiles
List-II (Location of Industrial Complex)
1. Pali
2. Khara (Bikaner)
3. Bhiwadi
4. Jaipur
Codes :
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) 1 2 3 4
(B) 2 3 4 1
(C) 3 4 1 2
(D) 4 3 2 1

93. Which one of the following shows the correct sequence in descending order of irrigated area in percentage under the four crops grown in Rajasthan State ?
(A) Wheat, Gram, Oilseeds, Cotton
(B) Wheat, Cotton, Gram, Oilseeds
(C) Oilseeds, Wheat, Gram, Cotton
(D) Cotton, Oilseeds, Wheat, Gram

94. Rajasthan, which is one of the five top ranking States in wind power potentials, has a number of very good wind power sites in the State. Match the wind power sites with districts of their location, using the correct code.
List-I (Wind power site)
(a) Devgarh
(b) Harhnath
(c) Khodal
(d) Mohangarh
List-II (District of Location)
1. Sikar
2. Barmer
3. Jaisalmer
4. Chittorgarh
Codes :
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) 1 2 3 4
(B) 2 3 4 1
(C) 3 4 1 2
(D) 4 1 2 3

95. National Highway No. 15 linking Punjab with Gujarat State passes through the territory of a number of districts in Rajasthan State. The number of such districts in the State is—
(A) Five
(B) Six
(C) Four
(D) Seven

96. Thar link express train running between Jodhpur and Munabao railway stations covers nearly a distance of—
(A) 150 km
(B) more than 200 km
(C) less than 300 km
(D) more than 300 km

97. Consider the following statement and select correct answer from the codes given below—
Assertion (A) : The area falling east of the Aravalli in Rajasthan State has higher road density than that of those falling west of the Aravalli.
Reason (R) : Relief plays an important effect in regional distribution of roads in the State of Rajasthan.
Codes :
(A) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true

98. Which one of the following statements is not correct about the regional distribution of rural settlements in Rajasthan State ?
(A) Rural settlements in the Rajasthan plain are small, compact and sparsely distributed due to limited water supply and cultivable land
(B) In excessive arid areas having sand dunes, hamleted settlements are noticed near the water-bodies
(C) In eastern parts of Rajasthan large compact villages are a common sight
(D) Indira Gandhi Canal has, however, failed to encourage compact settlements similar to Punjab in northwestern parts of Rajasthan

99. The total number of urban settlements in Rajasthan State, according to 2001 Census has been—
(A) more than 300
(B) between 150 and 200
(C) more than 250
(D) between 200 and 250

100. Which one of the following is not the objective of forestry in Rajasthan State during the XI Five Year Plan ?
(A) To achieve 33•0 per cent tree cover in the State by 2016
(B) To check desertification and restore the ecological status of the Aravallis
(C) To conserve gene-pool and improve bio-diversity of flora and fauna
(D) To elicit people’s participation for institutionalization of Joint Forest Management (JFM)

Answers :

1. (A) 2. (B) 3. (A) 4. (D) 5. (A) 6. (B) 7. (C) 8. (C) 9. (C) 10. (B)
11. (B) 12. (C) 13. (D) 14. (C) 15. (C) 16. (B) 17. (A) 18. (A) 19. (A) 20. (C)
21. (A) 22. (C) 23. (C) 24. (C) 25. (A) 26. (A) 27. (C) 28. (A) 29. (A) 30. (A)
31. (C) 32. (D) 33. (A) 34. (A) 35. (D) 36. (B) 37. (B) 38. (C) 39. (B) 40. (C)
41. (B) 42. (D) 43. (A) 44. (C) 45. (D) 46. (D) 47. (D) 48. (D) 49. (C) 50. (C)
51. (A) 52. (D) 53. (D) 54. (D) 55. (A) 56. (C) 57. (D) 58. (C) 59. (C) 60. (A)
61. (D) 62. (A) 63. (D) 64. (B) 65. (C) 66. (C) 67. (D) 68. (B) 69. (D) 70. (A)
71. (B) 72. (A) 73. (B) 74. (D) 75. (B) 76. (C) 77. (C) 78. (D) 79. (D) 80. (D)
81. (D) 82. (B) 83. (D) 84. (C) 85. (D) 86. (C) 87. (D) 88. (D) 89. (C) 90. (D)
91. (C) 92. (D) 93. (B) 94. (D) 95. (A) 96. (A) 97. (C) 98. (A) 99. (D) 100. (C)
NOTE: If Some Questions have wrong Answer, Please COMMENT in details so correction can be made.

Ergograph and Its uses

Ergograph: An ergograph is a graph that shows a relation between human activities, or agricultural/climate factors, and a seasonal year. The name was coined by Dr. Arthur Geddes of the University of Edinburgh. It can either be shown as rectangular graph, either a line graph or a bar graph.
This graph of the climate of Weymouth and the Isle of Portland over the cycle of the year is a cartesian form ergograph. In cartesian form, the X axis is marked for the months of the year, and the Y axis is marked with the scale(s) of the activity/activities. For example, in the erograph to the right, the Y axis is marked with both temperature and rainfall/sunshine scales.
Question asked in RAS Pre Exam 2008 - Geography
Ergograph relates to
(A) Relative humidity and rainfall
(B) Temperature and rainfall
(C) Climate and growing season of crops
(D) Rainfall and winds
Courtesy: Wikipedia

RAS EXAM Public Administration Syllabus

Public Administration (Code No. 27)
I. Introduction : Meaning, scope and significance of public administration; Private and Public Administration; Evolution of Public Administration as a discipline.
II Theories and Principles of Administration : Scientific Management; Bureaucratic Model; Classical Theory; Humman Relations Theory; Behavioural Approach; Systems Approach. The Principles of Hierarchy; Unity of Command; Span of Control; Authority and Responsibility; Coordination; Delegation; Supervision.
III Administrative Behaviour; Decision Making; Leadership theories; Communication; and Motivation.
IV Personnel Administration; Role of Civil Service in developing society, Position, Classification, Recruitment; Training; Promotion; Pay and Service Condition; Neutrality and Anonymity.
V Financial Administration : Concept of Budget : Formulation and execution of budget; Account and Audit.
VI Control over Administration : Legislative, Executive and Judical Control, Citizen and Administration.
VII Comparative Administration : Salient features of administrative system in U.S.A., Great Britain and France.
VIII Central Administration in India. British legacy; Constitutional context of Indian Administration; The President, the Prime Minister as Real Executive; Central Secretariat; Cabinet Secretariat; Planning Commission; Finance Commission; Comptroller and Auditor General of India; Major patterns of Public Enterprises.
IX Civil Service in India : Recruitment of All India and Central Services, Union Public Service Commission, Training of IAS and IPS; Generalists and Specialists; Relations with the Political Executive.
X State, District and Local Administration : Governor, Chief Minister; Secretariat; Chief Secretary; Directorates; Role of District Collector in revenue, law and order and development administration; Panchayati Raj and Urban local governament- Main features, Structure and problem areas.

I. Basic Premises : Meaning, scopes nature and significance of Public Administration: Its role in developed and developing societies. Evolution of Public Administration as a discipline and its relationship with political science, psychology, economics and Law; Ecology of administration -asocial, economic, cultural, political and legal. New Public Administration.
II. Theories of Organization" Scientific management (Taylor and his associates): The Bureaucratic theory of organization (Weber): Classical theory of Organizations (Henri Fayol, Luther Gullic and others), The Human Relations Theory of Organization(Elton Mayo and his Colleagues), Behavioural approach, Systems Approach: Organizational Effectiveness.
III. Principles of Organization - Hierarchy, Unity of Command, Authority and Responsibility, Coordination. Span of Control, Supervision, Centralization and Decentralization, Delegation.
IV. Administrative Behaviour - Decision making with Special Reference to the contribution of Herbert Simon, Theories of leadership; Communication, Morale, Motivation (Maslow and Harzberg).
V. Structure of Organizations-Chief Executive; Types of Chief Executives and their functions; Line, staff and Auxiliary agencies; Departments: Corporations, Companies, Boards and Commissions, Headquarters and field relationship.
VI. Personnel Administration - Bureaucracy and Civil Services; Position Classification, Recruitment, Training, Career Development; Performance Appraisal, Promotion, Pay and Service Conditions, Retirement Benefits, Discipline, Employer-Employee Relations.
VII. Financial Administration - Concept of Budget. Preparation and Execution of the Budget, Performance Budgeting, Legislative Control, Account and Audit.
VIII. Accountability and Control - The concepts of Accountability and Control; Legislative and Judical Control over Administration: Citizen and Administration.
IX. Administrative Reforms - O & M, Work Study, Work Measurement; Administrative Reforms; Processes and Obstacles.
X. Administrative Law - Importance of Administrative Law: Delegated Legislation : Meaning, Types, Advantages, Limitations, Safeguards: Administrative Tribunals.
XI. Comparative and Development Administration - Meaning, Nature and Scope of Comparative Public Administration. Contribution of Fred Riggs with Particular reference to the prismatic Sala Model. The Concept. Scope and Significance of Development Administration: The concept of Administrative development;
Public Policy Process.

Indian Administration
I. Evolution of Indian Administration - Kautilya; Mughal period; British period.
II. Environmental Setting - Constitution, Parliamentary Democracy, Federalism Planning, Socialism.
III. Political Executive at the Union Level - President, Prime Minister, Council of Ministers, Cabinet Committees.
IV. Structure of Central Administration - Secretariat, Cabinet Secretariat, Ministries and Departments, Boards and Commissions, Field Organisations.
V. Centre- State Relations - Legislative, Administrative and Financial.
VI. Public Services - All India Services, Central Service, State Services, Local Civil Services, Union and State Public Service Commissions, Training of Civil Services.
VII. Machinery for Planning - Organization and role of National Development Council and Planning Commission; Planning Machinery at the State and District and Local Levels.
VIII. Public Undertakings- Forms of management, Control and impact of liberalization and improving performance and public enterprises in India.
IX. Control of Public Expenditure- Parliamentary Control; Role of the Finance Ministry; Comptroller and Auditor General.
X. Administration of Law and Order - Role of Central and State Agencies in Maintenance, of Law and Order.
XI. State Administration - Governor; Chief Minister, Council of Minister, Secretariat, Chief Secretary, Directorates with Special reference to Rajasthan.
XII. District Administration - Role and importance,; District Collector, land and revenue, Law and order and developmental functions; District Rural Development Agency.
XIII. Local Administration - Panchayati Raj and Urban Local Governments Features, Forms and Problems with special reference to Rajasthan: Autonomy of Local Bodies.
XIV. Administration for welfare - Administration for the Welfare of Weaker Sections with particular Reference to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Programs for the Welfare of Women and Children in Rajasthan.
XV. Issues in Indian Administration - Relationship between Political and Permanent Executives, Generalists and Specialists in Administration, Integrity in Administration. People's Participation in Administration; Redressal of Citizens Grievances. Lok Pal and Lok Ayuktas, Administrative Reforms in India
For Other Subjects RAS Exam Syllabus visit: RAS EXAM SYLLABUS

RAS EXAM Psychology Syllabus

Psychology (Code No. 26)
1. Scope, Method and subject matter.
2. Methods : Experimental methods, Field Studies, clinical and case methods, Characteristics of psychological studies.
3. Physiological Basis, Structure and functions of the nervous systems, functions of the endocrine system.
4. Development of Behaviour, Genetic mechanism, Environmental factors, Growth and maturation, Relevant experimental studies.
5. Cognitive processes (I) : Perception, Perceptual Process ; Perceptual organisation, Perception of form, colour, depth and time, Perceptual constancy, Role of motivation, Social and cultural factors in perceptions.
6. Cognitive Processes (II) : Learning. Learning process. Learning theories; Classical conditioning, Operant conditioning, Trial and error and Insight theories, Perceptual learning. Learning and motivation. Verbal learning. Motor learning.
7. Cognitive Processes (III) : Remembering. Measurement of remembering. Shortterm memory. Long-term memory. Forgetting. Theories of forgetting.
8. Cognitive Processes (IV) : Thinking. Development of thinking. Language and thought. Images. Concept formation. Problems solving
9. Intelligence : Nature of intelligence. Theories of intelligence. Measurement of intelligence. Intelligence and creativity.
10. Motivation : Needs, drives and motives. Classification of motives Measurement of motives. Theories of motivation.
11. Personality : Nature of personality. Triat and type approaches. Determinants of personality. Personality assessment : techniques and tests.
12. Coping Behaviour. Coping Mechanisms. Coping with frustration and stress. Conflicts.
13. Attitudes. Nature of attitudes. Theories of attitudes. Measurement of attitudes. Change of attitudes.
14. Communication : Types of communication, Communication process. Communication network. Distortion of communication.
15. Applications of psychology in industry, Education and Community.

1. Place of psychology in the family of social and behavioural sciences,. Nature, Scope and methods of psychology.
2. Nervous system; central and peripheral. Endocrine glands in context of human behaviour. Localisation of brain functions.
3. Attention and perception: Meaning, kinds and determinants of attention, Filteration,; Shifts; Division; Distraction, Fluctuation, Span of attention, Pattern recognition, Form perception, Figure-ground, Organizational principles of perception, Depth and Distance perception, Size perception, perception of motion, Illusion: Kinds, Theories, Factors, influencing perception.
4. Emotion: Characteristics of emotional behaviour, Expressions of emotions. Role of nervous system and endocrine glands in emotions. Theories of Emotion: James Lange and Cannon Bard.
5. Motivation: Needs, Drives Motives, and incentives. Characteristics of motivated Behaviour. Measurement of Need Achievement. Theories of Motivation.
6. Learning : Types of learning. Meaning. Theories of leaning. Classical
and Operant conditioning. Insight. Trial and Error learning. Laws of Learning. Skill learning. Factors influencing Learning. Learning curves. Transfer of training. Kind. Theories and Factors influencing Transfer.
7. Remembering and Forgetting: Nature of Remembering Methods of Reproduction: Recall, Recognition. Relearning, Reconstruction, Anticipation and paired associate learning. Factors influencing Remembering: Type and Amounts of material, methods of learning, Nature of forgetting: Forgetting curves. Causes of Forgetting.
8. Thinking : Nature of Thinking. Symbolic processes. Concept formation. Problem solving. Reasoning. Creative thinking, Language and Thought.
9. Intelligence and Aptitudes: Nature, and determinants of intelligence and aptitudes. Theories of intelligence, Measurement of intelligence and aptitudes. Constancy of IQ. Types of intelligence and Aptitude Tests.
10. Personality: Nature and Theories of Personality: Trait and Type Theories; Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory, Determinants of Personality. Measurement of Personality.
11. Attitudes: Nature, formation, measurement and change. Theories of Attitude; Balance and Cognitive Dissonance Theory.
12. Abnormal Behaviour: Concept. Conflicts and frustration. Mental Mechanisms. Causes of Abnormal Behaviour. Motivation and Adjustment. Methods of Assessing Abnormal Behaviour.
Unit-I Development Psychology: growth and Development, Principles and Stages of Development, Social, Emotional and Moral Development. Development Tasks.
Unit-II Guidance and Counselling: Meaning, Scope, Need, Difference between Guidance and Counselling. Areas: Vocational, Educational, personal, Group Guidance. Techniques: Directive, Non-directive, Electric, Group Counselling.
Unit-III Criminal Behaviour: Types of Crime. Understanding of crime. Causes of crime. Modern-Urban changes and crime. War and Crime. Measure s for Reforming criminals. Crime Detection methods. Prevention of crime. Juvenile Delinquency.
Unit-IV Psychology Applied to Industry: personnel selection and classification. Workers and management. Job Analysis. Personnel Assessment Techniques. Job Satisfaction. Industrial Morale. Psychology of work and accident. Propaganda.
Unit-V Psychology of Groups: Crowd Behaviour. Leadership: Types. Qualities. Functions. Theories. Group Behaviour. Group dynamics. Sociometry.
Unit-VI Construction and Standardization of Psychological Test: Steps of Construction and Standardization of Tests. Types of Reliability; Validity and Norms, Functions and Limitations of Psychological tests.
Unit-VII Statistics in Psychology: Graphical representation of data, Uses of Mean, Median, And Mode. Measures of Variability. Quartile Deviation. Average deviation. Standard Deviation. Concept of correlation. Uses of Correlation in psychology. Percentile and percentile ranks.
Unit-VIII Phychophysical Methods-Psychophysics: Basic concept, problems of psychophysics. Classical Psychophysical methods- Method of Limits, Method Constant Stimuli and method of average error. Limitations of psychophysical Methods.
Unit-IX Consumer Psychology: Interview, Mailed Questionnaire, Marketing, Motivation. Advertisement, Importance. Factors.
Unit-X Psychology of Marital Adjustment: Success and Failure. Divorce. Parental Fixation. Sibling Rivalary. Broken home and family consequences.
Unit-XI Special need children: Concept. Types; Mentally Retarded. Blind. Orthopaedically handicapped. Approaches in dealing with them. Hearing handicapped their special problems: Physical, Social, Psychological, Educational.
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RAS EXAM Indian History Syllabus

Indian History (Code No. 18)1. Foundations of Indian Culture and Civilization; Indus Civilization. Vedic Culture, Sangam Age.
2. Religious Movements : Buddhism, Jainism, Pauranika Hindusm.
3. The Mauryan Empire.
4. Trade and commerce in the pre-Gupta and Gupta periods.
5. Agrarian structure in the post-Gupta period.
6. Changes in the social structure of ancient India.
7. Political and social conditions of India between 800-1200 A.D.
8. The Delhi Sultanate ; administration and agratrian system.
9. The provincial dynasties; Vijayanagar Empire, society and administration.
10. The Indo-Islamic culture; religious movements of the 15th and 16th centuries.
11. The Mughal Empire (1526-1707); Mughal polity; agrarian system, art, architecture and culture under the Mughals.
12. Beginning of trade with Europe.
13. The Maratha kingdom and confederacy.
14. The decline of the Mughal Empire; the autonomous states with special reference to Bengal, Mysore and Punjab.
15. The East India Company and the Nawabs of Bengal.
16. British economic impact in India.
17. The Revolt of 1857 and other popular movements against the British rule in the 19th century.
18. Social and cultural awakening; the lower castes, trade union and peasant movements.
19.The Freedom struggle.

(Indian History from earliest times to 1757 A.D.)
1. Influence of geographical factors in Indian history, cultural unity in diversity.
2. Indus Valley Civilization; salient features, extent chronology, town planning economic life, religion.
3. Vedic Culture, political, social and religious ideas.
4. Cultural significance of the Epics, Ramayana and Mahabharat; the Sangam Age.
5. Rise of the Janapadas and the growth of the Magadhan empire.
6. Buddhism and Jainism; evolution, main teachings and contributions.
7. Mauryan Empire; political history, administration, Ashoka's Dhamma, contribution to Indian culture.
8. The Imperial Guptas; Samudra Gupta, Chandra Gupta II and Skanda Gupta.
9. Cultural achievement of the Gupta age; religion, philosophy, literature, art, sciences and codification of laws.
10. India's cultural contacts with the outside world; West Asia, Central and South East Asia.
11. The Imperial Kanauj, Harsha and his achievements, tripartite struggle.
12. Cultural contribution of the Chalukyas, Pallavas. Rashtrakutas and Cholas, Chola administration, Sankaracharya.
13. The establishment and expansion of Delhi sultanate; theory of kingship, Khiliji imperialism, economic policy of khiljis and Tughluqs. Mangol menance, nature of Afghan sovereignty;
14. Rajput resistance to the Turks with special reference to Prithvi Raj III, Ratan Singh of Chittor, Hammir of Ranthambhor and Kumbha; cultural achievements of Kumbha.
15. The administrative, social, economic and cultural conditions during the Sultanate period.
16. The Bhakti movement and its social significance; Hindu-Muslim cultural synthesis.
17. Establishment of the Mughal rule : the revival of the Afghans under Sher Shah, expansion and consolidation of the Mughal power (1556-1707).
18. Disintegration of Mughal empire; Mughal-Rajput relations. Deccan and North-West frontier policies, Shivaji and the Maratha Challenges.
19. Religious policy of the Mughals, Mughal administration, land revenue and Mansabdari systems, social and economic conditions, arts and literatures.
(Indian History 1757-1950 and Main Currents of Modern World History)

1. Establishment of British rule in Bengal, Peshwas and the emergence of Maratha confederacy, British policy towards the Indian states (1772-1858). Ranjit Singh and British relations with Punjab.
2. Decline of cottage industries; growth of new administrative, revenue and judicial systems.
3. The outbreak of 1857 - its nature, causes and consequences.
4. Role of Christian missionaries in India, the growth of English education and press.
5. Social and religious reform movements of the 19th century; ideas and contributions of Raja Ram Mohan Rai, Dayanand and Vivekanand.
6. Nature of British imperialism; liberal and conservative trends in administration-Ripon and Curzon.
7. Rise of nationalism; birth of Indian National congress, national movement under moderates and extremists.
8. The growth of Muslim League and communalism in Indian politics.
9. Economic drain, railways, causes of industrial and agricultural backwardness.
10. Emergence of Gandhi and mass movements; technique of Satyagraha.
11. Constitutional development; Indian Councils Act of 1909; Govt. of India Acts, 1919 and 1935.
12. August offer, Cripps' Mission, Quit India Movement, Simla Conference, Cabinet Mission Plan, Indian independence, legacy of the British rule.
13. Renaissance; its meaning, nature and impact, Reformation and its impact.
14. Mercantilism and industrial revolution.
15. War of American Independence.
16. French Revolution and its impact; Nepoleon Bonaparte.
17. Growth of Nationalism; unification of Germany and Italy.
18. Growth of colonialism and imperialism.
19. Causes and consequences of the First World War.
20. Ressian Revolution of 1917.
21. Economic depression of 1930.
22. Causes and effects of the Second World War.
23. Modernization of Japan; Communist Revolution in China.
24. Colonial struggles in South-East Asia, Indo-China and Africa; Rise of Arab Nationalism upto Suez Crisis.
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RAS EXAM Agriculture Syllabus

Agriculture (Code No. 01)
Agriculture, its importance in national economy; factors determining agroecological zone and geographic distributions of crop plants. Important crops of India, cultural practices for cereal, pulses, oilseed, fibre, sugar and tuber crops and the scientific basis for their crop rotation; multiple and relay cropping, intercropping, and mixed cropping. Soil genesis, Soil as a medium of plant growth and its composition, Mineral and organic constituents of the soil and their role in crop production; chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the soils; soil colloids; essential plant nutrients, their functions, occurrence and cycling in soils. Problem soils and their reclamation. Principles of soil fertility and its evaluation for judicious fertilizer use. Organic manures and biofertilizers; straight, complex and mixed fertilizers, their manufacture and mode of action
in soil. Principles of plant physiology with reference to plant nutrition, absorption, translocation and metabolism of nutrients. Diagnosis of nutrient deficiencies and their amelioration. Photosynthesis and respiration, growth and development auxins and hormones in plant growth. Elements of Genetics and plant breeding as applied to improvement of crops; development of plant hybrids and composites, important varieties, hybrids and composites of major crops.
Important fruit and vegetable crops of India, the package of practices and their scientific basis, crop rotations, intercropping, and companion crops, role of fruits and vegetables in human nutrition; post harvest handling and processing of fruits and vegetables. Serious pests and diseases affecting major crops. Principles of pest control, integrated control of pests and diseases; proper use and maintenance of plant protection equipments.
Principles of economics as applied to agriculture. Farm planning and resource management for optimum production. Farming systems and their role in regional economies Philosophy, objectives, scope and principles of extension. Extension organisation at the State, District and Block levels-their structure, functions and responsibilities. Methods of communication, role of Farm organisations in extension service.

Agronomy (including statistics): Agro Climatology-Major agroclimatic zones of India and Rajasthan. Cropping pattern in different agroclimatic zones. Elements of crop production, Tillage and tilth, cropping system including concepts of intercropping, multiple cropping, really cropping, mixed cropping, sequential cropping, multistoried cropping and their importance in relation to crop production, crop rotation.
Soil erosion: Nature and extent of problem in Rajasthan, agronomic practices for minimizing water and wind erosion, Soil conservation practices and structures. Weed management. Soils, fertilizers and irrigations : Soils and soil management. Different types of manures and fertilizers including bio fertilizers, soil testing, essential major and minor plant nutrients. Soil-water-plant relationship. Methods of irrigation. Present status and sources of irrigation in the country and state of Rajasthan. Qualities of irrigation water. Management of irrigation in major crops.
Field Crops : Study of cops with reference to origin, distribution in Rajasthan and India, classification of important agricultural crops, package of practices for important cereals i.e. Wheat, Barley, Bajra, Sorghum, (Jowar), Maize, paddy, pulses i.e. Gram, Moth, Moong, Cowpea, Oilseed Rape & Mustard, Groundnut, Til, Soyabeen, other crops, such as Cotton, Sugarcane, Cluster bean, Cumin, Coriander, Opium, Dry land agriculture concept, problem and extent of dry land agriculture in India and Rajasthan.
Soil Science : Soil genesis, soil survey & classification; physical, chemical and microbiological properties of soil; soil water; soil colloids; problem soils, their reclamation and management; soil microbes and their classification; soil organic matter, its formation and functions in soil, C/N ratio; Organic manure their preparation, composition, chemistry of decomposition and effects of soil properties. Fertilizer manufactureprocess and chemistry, straight, compound and mixed fertilizers and their effect on soil properties.
Agricultural Botany : Water relations, absorption and movement of water in plants, photosynthesis; respiration; growth and development; environmental factors affecting the growth.
Genetics : Importance and historical background of genetic; inheritance of simple characters in plan, gene interactions and multiple alleles, linkage and crossing over; DNA-structure & function. Plant Breeding - Its significance. Methods of breeding in self, cross & vegetatively propagated crops. Introduction, selection, hybridization, mutation, Heterosis breeding & population improvement. Exploitation of heterosis in Maize, Bajra & Sorghum. Improved seed types and their production. Genetic engineering. Ultra structure of plant cell; structure & function of cell organelles, classification of plant kingdom.
Horticulture : Olericulture - Types of vegetable farming; classification of vegetable crops' layout of vegetable garden; package of practices of important vegetables - Peas, Tomato, Cole Crops, Cucurbits, Okra, Brinjal, Radish, Carrot, Pomology Selection of site and layout of orchard. Methods of propagation, training and pruning of fruit plants; package of practices of Citrus, Mango, Ber, Papaya, Guava, Pomegranate; packing, storage and marketing. Floriculture and ornamental gardening- layout, care & management of garden and indoor plants. Fruit and vegetable technology. Principles of fruit and vegetable preservation, dehydration, bottling and canning. Scope and importance of Social Forestry & Agro forestry.
Plant Protection : Major diseases of Field, vegetable, orchard and plantation crops and their control measures. Causes and classification of plant diseases. Principles of Plant disease management with special
reference to biological and integrated approach. Studies of insect, pests and their control measures including
integrated pest management of field crops, polyphagous pests and their control. Pesticides - Doses and methods of application. Equipments - Calibration, maintenance and their use. Aerial operations, insecticidal
residues and their hazards Legislative measures for plant protection and quality control of pesticides Storage and post harvest technology. Lac culture, apiculture, and sericulture.
Livestock Production : importance of livestock in Rajasthan and India. Cattle, buffalo, goat, camel, sheep and poultry. Care and management of farm animals. Selection of livestock for mild, meat, wool and eggs. Methods of breeding. Animal nutrition-major and minor nutrients, digestion and absorption; nutritive value of feeds and fodders; feeding standards; balance ration Important fodder crops & grasses, pasture management, hay and silage making. Health and hygiene. Common infections, prevention and control of diseases care of sick animals.
Dairying : Present position of dairy animals in Rajasthan and India milk production and utilization, Collection, transportation, grading, standardisation, pasteurization, homogenization, storage, distribution and marketing of milk Common microorganism. sources and stage of contamination and control. Milk products-manufacture of cream, butter, ghee, cheese, ice-cream, dahi etc. Human nutrition-nutritional status, assessment and problems; importance of nutrition education.
Extension Education : Principles, Philosophy, scope and objectives. Rural and urban society; basic village institutions, social institutions, rural leadership-type of leaders; rural family; cultural & socio-economic changes, social control and social process. Early extension work in India, Rural preconstruction programme in India including community development programme, IADP, IAAP, HYVP, SFDA, MFAL, Operational Research, TRYSEM, NAEP, DRDA, IRDP, TDAP, Recent trends in agricultural extensions. Special incentives for small marginal & other depressed classes of farming community. Extension education as a process of teaching and learning; extension teaching methods; A.V.aids; cone of experience, types of slides
& film strips; programme planning and evaluation; communications; adoption and diffusion process, types of farmers in relation to adoption of innovations. Training & management in extension education. Role of
Farm-women in agricultural extension. Agricultural information; elements of effective teaching; T and V system.
Agricultural Economics : (including Farm Management) : Scope of agricultural economics., differentiation between agricultural economics and industrial economics. Peculiarities of Indian agriculture, population
theories. Problems of over population, Problems of land-Land use pattern; land utilization in India and Rajasthan and variations among states. Small and fragmented holdings, consolidation of holding; legislations in agriculture; management of waste lands.
Agriculture labor : Present position and problems; minimum wages. agricultural financing and rural banking - Meaning and importance of finance in agriculture; capital and credit requirement; commercial banks; social control on banks; bank nationalization; Rural Regional bank; RBI, AFC, ADB, IMF, DIR. Lead Bank, Area approach village adoption scheme, NABARD. (A.R.D.C.); co-operative financing - PACS, CCB, LDB, poverty and rural indebtedness.
Farm Management : Essentials in selecting a farm; various systems of farming; basic economic principles in farm management., farm records and accounts. Farm efficiency measures. Farm planning and budgeting. Problems of management in agriculture. Risk and uncertainty in a agriculture. Droughts and floods, insurance of crops & animals.
Agricultural Engineering : Study of common workshop tools of carpentry, blaksmithy and fitting shops, Study of different instruments and equipments used in land surveying. Sources of farm power on an average farm. Scope of farm mechanisation in India. Maintenance of agricultural machinery and implements, I.C. engines, water fitting devices, electric motors. Wind and solar energy as a source of farm power. Soil and water conservation engineering, water harvesting, storage and recycling, watershed management. Sources of irrigation water. Water measuring devices. Lining of water channel. Irrigation layout. Implements used for seed-bed preparation, sowing and fertilizer application, interculture and land leveling etc. Harvesting and threshing  equipments-manual, animal and-power operated. Storage structures.
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