Geography of India and World Quiz

Geography of India and World Quiz, Objective Questions: Geography of India and World Quiz for RAS Examination as per net pattern of RAS and other examination with short explanation. This question from NCERT Books of Social Science, Geography Class 6 to Class 10.

The planet known as the “Earth’s Twin” is
A. Jupiter 
B. Saturn 
C. Venus
D. Mars
Answer: C
Explanation: Venus is considered as ‘Earth’s-twin’ because its size and shape are very much similar to that of the earth.

Which is the third nearest planet to the sun ?
A. Venus 
B. Earth 
C. Mercury
D. Jupiter
Answer: B
Explanation: There are eight planets in our solar system. In order of their distance from the sun, they are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

All the planets move around the sun in a
A. Circular path 
B. Rectangular path 
C. Elongated path
D. Straight Path
Answer: C
Explanation: All the eight planets of the solar system move around the sun in fixed paths. These paths are elongated. They are called orbits. 

Pole Star indicates which direction ?
A. South 
B. North 
C. East
D. West
Answer: B
Explanation: In ancient times, people used to determine directions during the night with the help of stars. The North star indicates the north direction. It is also called the Pole Star. It always remains in the same position in the sky. 

Asteroids are found between the orbits of
A. Saturn and Jupiter 
B. Mars and Jupiter 
C. Earth and Mars
D. Earth and Venus
Answer: B
Explanation: Apart from the stars, planets and satellites, there are numerous tiny bodies which also move around the sun. These bodies are called asteroids. They are found between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter 

Which is the closest celestial body to our earth ?
A. Sun
B. Moon
C. Jupitar
D. Pluto
Answer: B
Explanation: The sun, the moon and all those objects shining in the night sky are called celestial bodies. Some celestial bodies are very big and hot. They are made up of gases. They have their own heat and light, which they emit in large amounts. These celestial bodies are called stars. The sun is a star. 

The southernmost Himalayas are known as
A. Shiwaliks 
B. Himadri 
C. Himachal
D. Arawali
Answer: B
Explanation: The northernmost is the Great Himalaya or Himadri. The world’s highest peaks are located in this range. Middle Himalaya or Himachal lies to the south of Himadri. Many popular hill stations are situated here.  The Shiwalik is the southernmost range.

Sahyadris is also known as
A. Aravali 
B. Upper Himalaya
C. Western Ghats 
D. Himadri
Answer: C
Explanation: The Western Ghats or Sahyadris border the plateau in the west and the Eastern Ghats provide the eastern boundary.  While the Western Ghats are almost continuous, the Eastern Ghats are broken and uneven. 

Corals are skeletons of tiny marine animals called ----- ?
A. Ant
B.  Sea Otter
C. Polyps
D. White Shark
Answer: C
Explanation: Corals are skeletons of tiny marine animals called Polyps. When the living polyps die, their skeletons are left. Other poplyps grow on top of the hard skeleton which grows higher and higher, thus forming the coral islands.

The Palk Strait lies between the countries
A. Sri Lanka and Maldives
B. India and Sri Lanka
C. India and Maldives
D. India and Bangladesh
Answer: B
Explanation: Sri Lanka is separated from India by the Palk Strait.

The oldest mountain range in India is the
A. Aravali hills 
B. Western ghats 
C. Himalayas
D. Vindhyachal
Answer: A
Explanation: Aravali hills, one of the oldest ranges of the world, border it on the north-west side. The Vindhyas and the Satpuras are the important ranges.

The latitude that runs almost halfway through India is ---- ?
A. Tropic of Cancer
B. Equator
C. Standard Meridian of India
D. Tropic of Capricorn
Answer: A
Explanation: India is located in the northern hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer (23°30'N) passes almost halfway through the country. From south to north, main land of India extends between 8°4'N and 37°6'N latitudes.

The world’s highest rainfall occurs in
A. Mumbai 
B. Asansol 
C. Mawsynram
D. Phalodi
Answer: C
Explanation: Climate of a place is affected by its location, altitude, distance from the sea, and relief. Mawsynram in Meghalaya receives the world’s highest rainfall, while in a particular year it might not rain at all in Jaisalmer in Rajasthan.

Mangrove forests can thrive in
A. saline water 
B. fresh water 
C. polluted water
D. None of above
Answer: A
Explanation: Mangrove forests can survive in saline water. They are found mainly in Sunderbans in West Bengal and in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Sundari is a well-known species of trees in mangrove forests after which Sunderbans have been named.

RAS Pre Admit Card 2016

Admit Card for RAS Pre 2016 on 28th August 2016: Rajasthan Public Service Commission (RPSC), Ajmer on 16th August has issued Admit Card / Call letters for Rajasthan Administrative Services (RAS) Pre 2016 which will be held on 28th August 2016 will be held in District headquarters. Now candidates are looking for RAS Pre 2016 Exam Admit card can download admit card from official website of RPSC, Ajmer i.e. from 16th August 2016 onwards with the help of Application ID and Date of Birth.
Candidates are advised to download RAS Pre Admit Card 2016 from below website link. If any candidates have discrepancy in Names, Fathers Name, DoB, Category then they can apply for change with application letter with Rs. 300 Postal order to RSPC, Ajmer. Check Press Note for Admit card, Correction.

Website Link for Admit Card of RAS Pre 2016

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Rajasthan Sewerage and Waste Water Policy 2016

Rajasthan Sewerage and Waste Water Policy 2016: Rajasthan state approve Sewerage and Waste Water Policy 2016 on 2nd August 2016. Here is some of Highlights of Rajasthan Sewerage and Waste Water Policy 2016.
  • Rajasthan is the first state in the country to bring Sewerage and Water Water Policy.
  • The Policy has been prepared after having studied laws of 15 different places. It has been formulated keeping in view the requirements of the state in the next 30 years.
  • Under the policy it has been ascertained that all houses in urban areas connected to the waste water sanitation system so that waste water does not flow on roads and sewerage water gets properly treated. 
  • Policy includes an implementation plan which envisages achieving the service level benchmark with connecting all urban houses with waste water sanitation network in a time frame. For District headquarters, National Capital Region, NCR towns, heritage towns, cities having partial coverage and cities with water supply level more than 135 lpcd and cities with population above 1 lakh the time frame has been set for five years.
  • Cities with population above 50 thousand and less than 1 lakh the time frame has been set for 10 years and cities with population below 50 thousand the time frame has been set for 15 years. 
  • Provision has been made for sale of treated water and it was decided that treated waste water would be sold in a transparent manner. 

Current Affairs August 2016

Current Affairs August 2016 Rajasthan, India, WorldCurrent Affairs General Knowledge(GK) updates for RAS/ IAS/ Bank Jobs as part of Current Affairs. Question of Rajasthan GK, India GK and World GK will be updated daily during whole month of August 2016.  For Current Affairs Live Updates Follow us on  GOOGLE+
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Current Affairs for August 2016- Daily Updates:

  • मुख्यमंत्री श्रीमती वसुन्धरा राजे ने 3 अगस्त को बिड़ला ऑडिटोरियम में जयपुर को विश्व स्तरीय शहर बनाने की दिशा में 2 हजार 229 करोड़ रुपए की 14 परियोजनाओं का शिलान्यास किया । मुख्यमंत्री श्रीमती वसुन्धरा राजे ने कहा कि हम सपने दिखाने में नहीं, सपने पूरे करने में माहिर हैं। 60 साल की जिस गंदगी से पूरा प्रदेश आहत है उसे हम सब मिलकर दूर करेंगे और एक स्वच्छ, चमकता-दमकता राजस्थान बनाएंगे। उन्होंने कहा कि जिस जेडीए को वित्तीय संकट का सामना करना पड़ रहा था, आज उसी जेडीए ने शहर की तस्वीर बदल दी है। 13 दिसम्बर, 2013 से अब तक जेडीए ने करीब 4 हजार 252 करोड़ रुपए के काम स्वीकृत किए हैं और इनमें से करीब 1500 करोड़ के काम पूरे हो चुके हैं। उन्होंने कहा कि 2018 तक जयपुर वल्र्ड क्लास सिटी का ही नहीं वंडर सिटी का रूप ले लेगा। CHECK MCQs with Explanation at RAJASTHAN GK App
  • प्रधानमंत्री फसल बीमा योजना के तहत राज्य के कृषक खरीफ सीजन में अधिसूचित फसलों का 10 अगस्त तक बीमा करवा सकेंगे। पूर्व में फसल बीमा योजना के तहत बीमा कराने की तिथि ऋणी कृृषकों की 2 अगस्त और गैर ऋणी कृृषकों की 5 अगस्त थी।  कृृषि मंत्री श्री प्रभुलाल सैनी ने बताया कि राज्य के कृृषकों द्वारा बीमा तिथि बढ़ाने की मांग की जा रही थी।
  • Rajasthan state cabinet meeting including approval to Sewerage and Waste Water Policy – 2016, amendment in pay scales of employees of subordinate courts and amendment in service rules of some other services. The Sewerage and Waste Water Policy aims at providing waste water sanitation facility to all urban citizens of Rajasthan.

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Structure of the Earth

Structure of the Earth: The interior structure of the Earth is layered in spherical shells, like an onion. These layers can be defined by their chemical and their rheological properties. Earth has an outer silicate solid crust, a highly viscous mantle, a liquid outer core that is much less viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core. Scientific understanding of the internal structure of the Earth is based on observations of topography and bathymetry, observations of rock in outcrop, samples brought to the surface from greater depths by volcanoes or volcanic activity, analysis of the seismic waves that pass through the Earth, measurements of the gravitational and magnetic fields of the Earth.

This Topic is Part of Broad Physical features of World

The Crust
  • It is the outermost solid part of the earth. It is brittle in nature. 
  • The thickness of the crust varies under the oceanic and continental areas.
  • Oceanic crust is thinner as compared to the continental crust. The mean thickness of oceanic crust is 5 km whereas that of the continental is around 30 km.
The Mantle
  • The portion of the interior beyond the crust is called the mantle. The mantle extends from Moho’s discontinuity to a depth of 2,900 km.
  • The mantle contains a weaker zone called asthenosphere.
  • It is from this that the molten rock materials find their way to the surface.
  • The material in the upper mantle portion is called magma.
  • Once it starts moving towards the crust or it reaches the surface, it is referred to as lava.
The Core
  • The coremantle boundary is located at the depth of 2,900 km. The core is made up of very heavy material mostly constituted by nickel and iron. It is sometimes referred to as the nife layer.
  • The Core is divided into two layers: Outer Core and Inner Core.
    • Outer core is in liquid state. The liquid outer core surrounds the inner core and is believed to be composed of iron mixed with nickel and trace amounts of lighter elements.
    • Inner core is in solid state. Inner Core was discovered in 1936 by Inge Lehmann and is generally believed to be composed primarily of iron and some nickel. It is not necessarily a solid, but, because it is able to deflect seismic waves, it must behave as a solid in some fashion.
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Rajasthan State Forest Policy 2010

Rajasthan State Forest Policy 2010: Rajasthan Cabinet in February 2010 approved the State’s first ever Forest Policy along with new policies on livestock development and water. Forest Policy draft approved by the Cabinet contains an ambitious target to increase the forest cover in the desert State to 20% from the existing 9.5%, satellite imagery puts it at 7.1 per cent by carrying out massive afforestation programme under “Harit Rajasthan” scheme. The draft suggests making use of the funds from the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme to carry out tree plantation in the Indira Gandhi Canal areas and elsewhere where the forests can be re-generated.

Rajasthan State Forest Policy 2010 Highlights:

  • Forest area of the state is only 9.56% of its total geographic area which is mainly confined to Aravallis and Vindhayan hill ranges of the Rajasthan.
  • The per capita forest area is only 0.06ha, which is one of the lowest in the country.
  • The basic objectives of state forest policy of rajasthan are as follows:
    • Protecting, conserving and developing natural forest in rajasthan with active participation of local community.
    • Increasing the productivity of forests through appropriate management interventions and use of modern technology to meet the needs of present as well as future generations.
    • Combating desertification and preventing all kinds of land degradation
    • Conservating floral and natural diversity and gene pool reserve through a network of protected areas.
    • Empowering the village communities for sustainable management of forest under join forest management system
    • The principal aim of forest policy is environmental stability and ecological security through increasing vegetate cover which will lead to reduction in stratospheric temperature is likely to increase the possibility of rains.
Check Full Rajasthan State Forest Policy 2010 in PDF

International Waterways

International WaterwaysInternational Waterways is one of Subtopic under Geography of World and India which is one of main 11 Topics in RAS Pre Examination as per RAS Exam New Pattern from 2013, RAS 2016 and so on. will cover Notes on all topics of RAS Pre, Mains for RAS and other competitive examinations
Ocean transport is a cheaper means of haulage (carrying of load) of bulky material over long distances from one continent to another. 
Important Ocean Routes
  • Northern Atlantic Sea Route
    • Northern Atlantic Sea Route links North-eastern U.S.A. and North western Europe, the two industrially developed regions of the world. 
    • The foreign trade over this route is greater than that of the rest of the world combined.
    • One fourth of the world’s foreign trade moves on this route. It is, therefore, the busiest in the world and otherwise, called the Big Trunk Route. Port Said, Aden, Mumbai, Colombo and Singapore are some of the important ports on this route. 
    • The construction of Suez canal has greatly reduced the distance and time as compared to the earlier route through the Cape of Good Hope.
  • Mediterranean–Indian Ocean Route 
    • Mediterranean–Indian Ocean Route route connects the highly industrialised Western European region with West Africa, South Africa, South-east Asia and the commercial agriculture and livestock economies of Australia and New Zealand. 
    • Before the construction of the Suez Canal this was the route connecting Liverpool and Colombo which was 6,400 km longer than the Suez Canal route.
  • Cape of Good Hope Sea Route
    • Cape of Good Hope Sea Route is another important one across the Atlantic Ocean which connects West European and West African countries with Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay in South America.
  • North Pacific Sea Route
    • North Pacific Sea Route links the ports on the west-coast of North America with those of Asia. These are Vancouver, Seattle, Portland, San Francisco and Los Angeles on the American side and Yokohama, Kobe, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Manila and Singapore on the Asian side.
  • South Pacific Sea Route
    • South Pacific Sea Route connects Western Europe and North America with Australia, New Zealand and the scattered Pacific islands via the Panama Canal. Honolulu is an important port on this route.
Shipping Canals
  • Suez Canal
    • Suez Canal had been constructed in 1869 in Egypt between Port Said in the north and Port Suez in the south linking the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.
    • It is a sea-level canal without locks which is about 165 km and 11 to 15 m deep.
  • Panama Canal
    • Panama Canal connects the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west.
    • The Canal is about 72 km. long and involves a very deep cutting for a length of 12 km. It has a six lock system and ships cross the different levels (Watch Video 26 Meter up and down in Gatun Lake) through these locks before entering the Gulf of Panama. 
    • It shortens the distance between New York and San Francisco by 13,000 km by sea.
Inland Waterways
  • Inland Waterways: 
    • Rivers, canals, lakes and coastal areas have been important waterways since time immemorial. Boats and steamers are used as means of transport for cargo and passengers.
    • Very heavy cargo like coal, cement, timber and metallic ores can be transported through inland waterways.
  • Rhine Waterways 
    • Rhine Waterways flows through Germany and the Netherlands. 
    • It is navigable for 700 km from Rotterdam, at its mouth in the Netherlands to Basel in Switzerland.This waterway is the world’s most heavily used. 
    • Each year more than 20,000 ocean-going ships and 2,00,000 inland vessels exchange their cargoes.
    • It connects the industrial areas of Switzerland, Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands with the North Atlantic Sea Route.
  • Danube Waterway
    • Danube Waterway is important inland waterway serves Eastern Europe. 
    • The Danube river rises in the Black Forest and flows eastwards through many countries.
  • Volga Waterway
    • Russia has a large number of developed waterways, of which the Volga is one of the most important. 
    • It provides a navigable waterway of 11,200 km and drains into the Caspian Sea.
  • Great Lakes – St. Lawrence Seaway
    • The Great Lakes of North America Superior, Huron Erie and Ontario are connected by Soo Canal and Welland Canal to form an inland waterway.
  • Mississippi Waterways
    • The Mississippi-Ohio waterway connects the interior part of U.S.A. with the Gulf of Mexico in the south. 
    • Large steamers can go through this route up to Minneapolis.
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Major Ocean Currents of the World, Tips to Remember

List of Major Ocean Currents of the World, Trick to RememberMajor Ocean Currents of the World is one of Subtopic under Geography of World and India which is one of main 11 Topics in RAS Pre Examination as per RAS Exam New Pattern from 2013, RAS 2016 and so on. will cover Notes on all topics of RAS Pre, Mains for RAS and other competitive examinations.
An ocean current is a continuous, directed movement of seawater generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as breaking waves, wind, the Coriolis effect, cabbeling, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.
Ocean currents classification based on their depth are 
1. Surface currents constitute about 10 per cent of all the water in the ocean, these waters are the upper 400 m of the ocean.
2. Deep water currents make up the other 90 per cent of the ocean water.

Ocean currents classification based on Temperature
1. Cold currents bring cold water into warm water areas. These currents are usually found on the west coast of the continents in the low and middle latitudes and on the east coast in the higher latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere.  Major Cold Current Are following
1. California Current

2. Humboldt (Peru) Current
3. Canaries Current
4. Benguela Current (Warm/Cool)
5. Okhotsk Current Current
6. West Australian Current
7. West Wind Drift
8. South Atlantic Current
9. Falkland Current
10. Labrador Current

2. Warm currents bring warm water into cold water areas and are usually observed on the east coast of continents in the low and middle latitudes. In the northern hemisphere they are found on the west coasts of continents in high latitudes.

 1. North Pacific Drift
 2. North Equatorial Current
 3. Equatorial Countercurrent
 4. South Equatorial Current
 5. West Wind Drift
 6. Gulf Stream
 7. North Atlantic Drift
 8. North Equatorial Current
 9. Equatorial Countercurrent
10. South Equatorial Current
11. Brazil Current
12. West Wind Drift
13. Monsoon Current
14. Equatorial Countercurrent
15. South Equatorial Current
16. Mozambique Current
17. West Wind Drift
18. Japan Current
19. North Equatorial Current
20. Equatorial Countercurrent
21. South Equatorial Current
22. East Australian Current

Tips to Remember: Just Remember the Cold current as they are lesser in Number, Rest all are warm currents. Here is Tips to Remember 10 Major Cold Ocean Currents. 

California Human Can be Ok in Australian Wind with Lab SoFa.
California Current
Humboldt (Peru) Current
Canaries Current
Benguela Current (Warm/Cool)
Okhotsk Current Current
West Australian Current
West Wind Drift
Labrador Current
South Atlantic Current
Falkland Current

Candidates who are appearing for RAS / IAS / SSC and other competitive examination might need more study materials like Daily Current Affairs MCQs with Explanations, GK Notes, Old Exam Papers and Important Questions on various topics, can download our FREE Android App which includes 300+ Solved Exam Papers and Updated daily in Hindi and English. Download Links are:

Major Industrial Regions

Major Industrial Regions of World: Major Industrial Regions of World is one of Subtopic under Geography of World and India which is one of main 11 Topics in RAS Pre Examination as per RAS Exam New Pattern from 2013, RAS 2016 and so on. will cover Notes on all topics of RAS Pre, Mains for RAS and other competitive examinations.
Geographic Distribution Major concentrations of modern manufacturing have flourished in a few number of places. These cover less than 10 per cent of the world’s land area. These nations have become the centres of economic and political power. The existence of a market for manufactured goods is the most important factor in the location of industries.

Important Factors for development of Industrial Regions:
  • Access to Market: The developed regions of Europe, North America, Japan and Australia provide large global markets as the purchasing power of the people is very high.
  • Access to Raw Material: Raw material used by industries should be cheap and easy to transport. Industries based on cheap, bulky and weight-losing material (ores) are located close to the sources of raw material such as steel, sugar, and cement industries.
  • Access to Labour Supply: Labour supply is an important factor in the location of industries.
  • Access to Sources of Energy: Industries which use more power are located close to the source of the energy supply such as the aluminium industry.
  • Access to Transportation and Communication Facilities: Speedy and efficient transport facilities to carry raw materials to the factory and to move finished goods to the market are essential for the development of industries. The cost of transport plays an important role in the location of industrial units.
  • Government Policy: Governments adopt ‘regional policies’ to promote ‘balanced’ economic development and hence set up industries in particular areas.
Classification of Industries
  • Industries based on Size: The amount of capital invested, number of workers employed and volume of production determine the size of industry. Accordingly, industries may be classified into household or cottage, small-scale and large-scale.
  • Industries based on Inputs/Raw Materials: On the basis of the raw materials used, the industries are classified as: (a) agro-based; (b) mineral based; (c) chemical based; (d) forest based: and (e) animal based.
  • Industries Based On Output/Product
    • Basic Industry: You have seen some machines and tools made of iron or steel. The raw material for such machines and tools is iron and steel. Which is itself an industry.
    • Consumer Goods: The consumer goods industries produced goods which are consumed by consumers directly. For example, industries producing breads and biscuits, tea, soaps and toiletries, paper for writing, televisions, etc. are consumer goods or non-basic industries.
  • Industries based on ownership:
    • Public Sector Industries are owned and managed by governments. In India, there were a number of Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) like ONGC, NTPC, SAIL, Coal India etc. Socialist countries have many state owned industries. Mixed economies have both Public and Private sector enterprises.
    • Private Sector Industries are owned by individual investors. These are managed by private organisations. In capitalist countries, industries are generally owned privately.
    • Joint Sector Industries are managed by joint stock companies or sometimes the private and public sectors together establish and manage the industries.
Major Industrial Regions of World:
  • Ruhr Coal-field, Germany: This has been one of the major industrial regions of Europe for a long time. Coal and iron and steel formed the basis of the economy, but as the demand for coal declined, the industry started shrinking. The Ruhr region is responsible for 80 per cent of Germany’s total steel production.
  • Iron and Steel Industry Regions
    • Iron and Steel industry forms the base of all other industries. 
    • In U.S.A, most of the production comes from the north Appalachian region (Pittsburgh), Great Lake region (Chicago-Gary, Erie, Cleveland, Lorain, Buffalo and Duluth) and the Atlantic Coast (Sparrows Point and Morisville). Pittsburg area is now losing ground. It has now become the “rust bowl” of U.S.A.
    • The important steel centres are Birmingham and Sheffield in the U.K.; Duisburg, Dortmund, Dusseldorf and Essen in Germany; Le Creusot and St. Ettienne in France; and Moscow, St. Petersburgh, Lipetsk, Tula, in Russia and Krivoi Rog, and Donetsk in Ukraine. 
    • In Asia, the important centres include Nagasaki and Tokyo-Yokohama in Japan; Shanghai, Tienstin and Wuhan in China. 
    • Jamshedpur, Kulti-Burnpur, Durgapur, Rourkela, Bhilai, Bokaro, Salem, Visakhapatnam and Bhadravati in India.
  • Cotton Textile Industry
    • Cotton textile industry has three sub-sectors i.e. handloom, powerloom and mill sectors.
    • Cotton textile manufacturing requires good quality cotton as raw material. India, China, U.S.A, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Egypt produce more than half of the world’s raw cotton.
  • High-tech industries, Silicon Valley
    • High technology, or simply high-tech, is the latest generation of manufacturing activities. It is best understood as the application of intensive research and development (R and D) efforts leading to the manufacture of products of an advanced scientific and engineering character. 
    • High-tech industries which are regionally concentrated, self-sustained and highly specialised are called technopolies. 
    • The Silicon Valley near San Francisco and Silicon Forest near Seattle are examples of technopolies.
  • Industrial Region of North America
    • Industrial region of USA & Canada comprise of The New England Regions, The New York - Mid-Atlantic Region, North - Eastern Region. The Southern Region, Western Region & Pacific Region. 
    • Industrial regions of Canada are Ontario & St. Lawrence Valley, Prairie Region & pacific coastal region. It includes cities of Quebec, Toronto, Hamilton, Vancouver, etc.
  • Industrial region of Europe
    • Industrial regions of united kingdom are Lancashire, London's basin, Scotland, Midland, South-Wales, etc. producing manufacturing products like engineering, ferrous, chemical textile, food & beverages, etc.
    • Industrial regions of Germany are The Saar Region, The Hamburg Region, Berlin Region & Leipzig Region with iron & steel heavy chemicals, textiles & different consumer goods Industries.
    • Industrial region of France produces iron & steel, textile, glass, leather, automobiles with Northern, Lorraine & Paris Industrial Regions. Other European countries like Italy, Switzerland, Holland Belgium, Sweden, etc. along with Russia are industrial giants.
  • Industrial Region of Asia
    • Industrial regions of China are the most dominant industrial power of Asia with industrial agglomerations in Manchurian region, Yangtze region, North-china region, South China region, etc. with many manufacturing units producing steel, heavy chemical's textiles, paper, cement, automobiles, toys, etc.
    • Industrial region of Japan has several industrial cities producing steel’s Pedro-chemical, cement, footwear. toys, etc. at Tokya-Yokohama region, Osaka - Kobe region, north Kyushu region.
    • Industrial regions of India are The Calcutta Conurbation, The Mumbai-Pune Industrial belt, Ahemadabad - Vadodara belt, Southern industrial regions with Chennai, Coimbatore, Bangalore industrial belt, Damodar Valley industrial belt, Northern Capital regions (NCR) with centers like Delhi, Noida, Gaziabad, Gurgaon, Manesar, Biwani etc.
Major Industrial Cities of World:
  • Montreal: Montreal's aerospace sector, Canada is comprised of more than 210 companies which employ 43,500. This city is the world's 4th largest center of aerospace manufacturing. It's the only area in the world where an entire aircraft be assembled from locally manufactured components.
  • Singapore: More than 30 biomedical sciences companies have established regional headquarters in the country. This sector contributes 4%-5% of the country's GDP.  Part of the attraction of this industry to the country is its IP protection which has been ranked the second best in the world. 
  • Taiwan: Taiwan's domestic optoelectronics industry is fifth of the world’s largest producers of TFT-flat screens are Taiwan-based. The sector manufactures high-precision, high-definition and color displays.
  • Mexico: Electronics manufacturing activity in Mexico is widespread. Guadalajara’s capital city, Jalisco, is regarded as the epicenter of this industrial sector. In the last 15 years, approximately $14 billion in investments have been made to make production stronger and more efficient.
  • Shenzen, China: Shenzen, which is located between Guangzhou and Hong Kong, is a large manufacturing center that has sprung up quickly. Incorporating the success of its neighbors, it is ranked fourth in China for industrial output. It has been manufacturing higher technology products than Guangzhou in general, with several of its own successful companies.
  • Barcelona: Barcelona has served as a crossroads of manufacturing -- a vital center of trading and shipping -- throughout the millennium now coming to a close. Its strategic location, on the Mediterranean Sea and near the border with France, has made its emergence as the principal industrial and commercial center of Spain inevitable.
  • Chicago: More than 80 years ago, when steelworkers and meat packers defined the spirit of Chicago, Carl Sandburg pronounced it the "City of the big shoulders." Today, when blue suits capture that spirit as well as blue collars, the name sticks. Chicago Metropolitan Area, is home to 29 Fortune 500 companies and is a transportation and distribution center. Manufacturing, printing, publishing, insurance and food processing also play major roles in the city's economy.
  • Detroit: Detroit is second largest source of architectural and engineering job opportunities in the U.S. Detroit is known as the automobile capital of the world, with the domestic auto industry primarily headquartered in Metro Detroit.
  • Houston: The story of Houston is the story of a lesson painfully but profitably learned. When oil prices collapsed in 1982, the city suffered. But as the community reeled, it also pledged it would do everything in its power to find a cure. Today, in addition to its strength in oil and gas exploration, basic petroleum refining, and petrochemical production, the area thrives on high technology, medical research, health care, and professional services. The economy of Houston is primarily based on the energy industry (particularly oil), however, health care, biomedical research, and aerospace also constitute large sectors of the city's economy.
  • Osaka: Osaka has the greatest number of manufacturing establishments in Japan with more than 18000 companies. It is an area where the artisan spirit lives on, with more than 60% of industrial production taking place in small and medium-sized enterprises. 
  • Randstad: The Randstad region of the Netherlands is a cornucopia of manufacturers engaged in everything from tobacco to information technology. But it is not merely the products that emerge from this thriving region that give it its world-class status. The Randstad earns its place by virtue of its holistic approach to manufacturing. Its impressive lineup of headquarters, logistics, and R&D facilities puts the region on the manufacturing map, and marks it with a gold star.  
  • San Jose: The capital of Silicon Valley, San Jose is considered to be the birthplace of the high-technology boom and the semiconductor industry. The spirit of innovation emanating from Silicon Valley remains the energy force that fuels high technology around the globe.  
  • São Paulo: The city now is the commercial center not only of Brazil, but also of South America. Besides its prominence in the chemical, textile, metalworking, and electronics industries, São Paulo is a driving force in world automobile production. No wonder the São Paulo metro area continues to attract all sorts of plants, including automotive.  
  • Seoul: The relationship between Seoul and Inchon stands as a model of the world-class manufacturing community. No one city can achieve world-class status alone. The bustling port city of Inchon is used to its best advantage by Seoul, whose own manufacturing base -- primarily textiles and apparel, chemicals and medicine, electrical products and electronics, and machinery -- supplies markets around the world. It comes as no surprise, then, that Seoul is at the forefront of the globalization of Korea.  
  • Shanghai: One of the largest cities in the world, Shanghai earns its world-class distinction by virtue of its position as the leading commercial and industrial center of China and for capitalizing on its strategic location with outstanding transportation links. Like São Paulo, Shanghai benefits greatly from its perception in the executive suites of foreign corporations. 
  • Tokyo: Tokyo, capital of the Kanto region and counterpart of Osaka in the Kansai region, is home to many of the world's largest manufacturers as well as thousands of smaller firms. Tokyo also is a headquarters community, with automakers among those who have found it an ideal setting for both corporate penthouses and plant floors.  
  • Toronto: Although Toronto serves as headquarters for a number of manufacturing firms, it is the North American auto industry that keeps it thriving. And when the cars and trucks roll off Toronto's assembly lines, many of them head straight to the U.S. A cosmopolitan city where culture and business walk hand in hand, Toronto is poised to be a symbol of the best of the best in Canada as a new century dawns. 
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