Structure of the Earth

Structure of the Earth: The interior structure of the Earth is layered in spherical shells, like an onion. These layers can be defined by their chemical and their rheological properties. Earth has an outer silicate solid crust, a highly viscous mantle, a liquid outer core that is much less viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core. Scientific understanding of the internal structure of the Earth is based on observations of topography and bathymetry, observations of rock in outcrop, samples brought to the surface from greater depths by volcanoes or volcanic activity, analysis of the seismic waves that pass through the Earth, measurements of the gravitational and magnetic fields of the Earth.

This Topic is Part of Broad Physical features of World

The Crust
  • It is the outermost solid part of the earth. It is brittle in nature. 
  • The thickness of the crust varies under the oceanic and continental areas.
  • Oceanic crust is thinner as compared to the continental crust. The mean thickness of oceanic crust is 5 km whereas that of the continental is around 30 km.
The Mantle
  • The portion of the interior beyond the crust is called the mantle. The mantle extends from Moho’s discontinuity to a depth of 2,900 km.
  • The mantle contains a weaker zone called asthenosphere.
  • It is from this that the molten rock materials find their way to the surface.
  • The material in the upper mantle portion is called magma.
  • Once it starts moving towards the crust or it reaches the surface, it is referred to as lava.
The Core
  • The coremantle boundary is located at the depth of 2,900 km. The core is made up of very heavy material mostly constituted by nickel and iron. It is sometimes referred to as the nife layer.
  • The Core is divided into two layers: Outer Core and Inner Core.
    • Outer core is in liquid state. The liquid outer core surrounds the inner core and is believed to be composed of iron mixed with nickel and trace amounts of lighter elements.
    • Inner core is in solid state. Inner Core was discovered in 1936 by Inge Lehmann and is generally believed to be composed primarily of iron and some nickel. It is not necessarily a solid, but, because it is able to deflect seismic waves, it must behave as a solid in some fashion.
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Rajasthan State Forest Policy 2010

Rajasthan State Forest Policy 2010: Rajasthan Cabinet in February 2010 approved the State’s first ever Forest Policy along with new policies on livestock development and water. Forest Policy draft approved by the Cabinet contains an ambitious target to increase the forest cover in the desert State to 20% from the existing 9.5%, satellite imagery puts it at 7.1 per cent by carrying out massive afforestation programme under “Harit Rajasthan” scheme. The draft suggests making use of the funds from the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme to carry out tree plantation in the Indira Gandhi Canal areas and elsewhere where the forests can be re-generated.

Rajasthan State Forest Policy 2010 Highlights:

  • Forest area of the state is only 9.56% of its total geographic area which is mainly confined to Aravallis and Vindhayan hill ranges of the Rajasthan.
  • The per capita forest area is only 0.06ha, which is one of the lowest in the country.
  • The basic objectives of state forest policy of rajasthan are as follows:
    • Protecting, conserving and developing natural forest in rajasthan with active participation of local community.
    • Increasing the productivity of forests through appropriate management interventions and use of modern technology to meet the needs of present as well as future generations.
    • Combating desertification and preventing all kinds of land degradation
    • Conservating floral and natural diversity and gene pool reserve through a network of protected areas.
    • Empowering the village communities for sustainable management of forest under join forest management system
    • The principal aim of forest policy is environmental stability and ecological security through increasing vegetate cover which will lead to reduction in stratospheric temperature is likely to increase the possibility of rains.
Check Full Rajasthan State Forest Policy 2010 in PDF

International Waterways

International WaterwaysInternational Waterways is one of Subtopic under Geography of World and India which is one of main 11 Topics in RAS Pre Examination as per RAS Exam New Pattern from 2013, RAS 2016 and so on. will cover Notes on all topics of RAS Pre, Mains for RAS and other competitive examinations
Ocean transport is a cheaper means of haulage (carrying of load) of bulky material over long distances from one continent to another. 
Important Ocean Routes
  • Northern Atlantic Sea Route
    • Northern Atlantic Sea Route links North-eastern U.S.A. and North western Europe, the two industrially developed regions of the world. 
    • The foreign trade over this route is greater than that of the rest of the world combined.
    • One fourth of the world’s foreign trade moves on this route. It is, therefore, the busiest in the world and otherwise, called the Big Trunk Route. Port Said, Aden, Mumbai, Colombo and Singapore are some of the important ports on this route. 
    • The construction of Suez canal has greatly reduced the distance and time as compared to the earlier route through the Cape of Good Hope.
  • Mediterranean–Indian Ocean Route 
    • Mediterranean–Indian Ocean Route route connects the highly industrialised Western European region with West Africa, South Africa, South-east Asia and the commercial agriculture and livestock economies of Australia and New Zealand. 
    • Before the construction of the Suez Canal this was the route connecting Liverpool and Colombo which was 6,400 km longer than the Suez Canal route.
  • Cape of Good Hope Sea Route
    • Cape of Good Hope Sea Route is another important one across the Atlantic Ocean which connects West European and West African countries with Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay in South America.
  • North Pacific Sea Route
    • North Pacific Sea Route links the ports on the west-coast of North America with those of Asia. These are Vancouver, Seattle, Portland, San Francisco and Los Angeles on the American side and Yokohama, Kobe, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Manila and Singapore on the Asian side.
  • South Pacific Sea Route
    • South Pacific Sea Route connects Western Europe and North America with Australia, New Zealand and the scattered Pacific islands via the Panama Canal. Honolulu is an important port on this route.
Shipping Canals
  • Suez Canal
    • Suez Canal had been constructed in 1869 in Egypt between Port Said in the north and Port Suez in the south linking the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.
    • It is a sea-level canal without locks which is about 165 km and 11 to 15 m deep.
  • Panama Canal
    • Panama Canal connects the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west.
    • The Canal is about 72 km. long and involves a very deep cutting for a length of 12 km. It has a six lock system and ships cross the different levels (Watch Video 26 Meter up and down in Gatun Lake) through these locks before entering the Gulf of Panama. 
    • It shortens the distance between New York and San Francisco by 13,000 km by sea.
Inland Waterways
  • Inland Waterways: 
    • Rivers, canals, lakes and coastal areas have been important waterways since time immemorial. Boats and steamers are used as means of transport for cargo and passengers.
    • Very heavy cargo like coal, cement, timber and metallic ores can be transported through inland waterways.
  • Rhine Waterways 
    • Rhine Waterways flows through Germany and the Netherlands. 
    • It is navigable for 700 km from Rotterdam, at its mouth in the Netherlands to Basel in Switzerland.This waterway is the world’s most heavily used. 
    • Each year more than 20,000 ocean-going ships and 2,00,000 inland vessels exchange their cargoes.
    • It connects the industrial areas of Switzerland, Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands with the North Atlantic Sea Route.
  • Danube Waterway
    • Danube Waterway is important inland waterway serves Eastern Europe. 
    • The Danube river rises in the Black Forest and flows eastwards through many countries.
  • Volga Waterway
    • Russia has a large number of developed waterways, of which the Volga is one of the most important. 
    • It provides a navigable waterway of 11,200 km and drains into the Caspian Sea.
  • Great Lakes – St. Lawrence Seaway
    • The Great Lakes of North America Superior, Huron Erie and Ontario are connected by Soo Canal and Welland Canal to form an inland waterway.
  • Mississippi Waterways
    • The Mississippi-Ohio waterway connects the interior part of U.S.A. with the Gulf of Mexico in the south. 
    • Large steamers can go through this route up to Minneapolis.
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Major Ocean Currents of the World, Tips to Remember

List of Major Ocean Currents of the World, Trick to RememberMajor Ocean Currents of the World is one of Subtopic under Geography of World and India which is one of main 11 Topics in RAS Pre Examination as per RAS Exam New Pattern from 2013, RAS 2016 and so on. will cover Notes on all topics of RAS Pre, Mains for RAS and other competitive examinations.
An ocean current is a continuous, directed movement of seawater generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as breaking waves, wind, the Coriolis effect, cabbeling, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.
Ocean currents classification based on their depth are 
1. Surface currents constitute about 10 per cent of all the water in the ocean, these waters are the upper 400 m of the ocean.
2. Deep water currents make up the other 90 per cent of the ocean water.

Ocean currents classification based on Temperature
1. Cold currents bring cold water into warm water areas. These currents are usually found on the west coast of the continents in the low and middle latitudes and on the east coast in the higher latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere.  Major Cold Current Are following
1. California Current

2. Humboldt (Peru) Current
3. Canaries Current
4. Benguela Current (Warm/Cool)
5. Okhotsk Current Current
6. West Australian Current
7. West Wind Drift
8. South Atlantic Current
9. Falkland Current
10. Labrador Current

2. Warm currents bring warm water into cold water areas and are usually observed on the east coast of continents in the low and middle latitudes. In the northern hemisphere they are found on the west coasts of continents in high latitudes.

 1. North Pacific Drift
 2. North Equatorial Current
 3. Equatorial Countercurrent
 4. South Equatorial Current
 5. West Wind Drift
 6. Gulf Stream
 7. North Atlantic Drift
 8. North Equatorial Current
 9. Equatorial Countercurrent
10. South Equatorial Current
11. Brazil Current
12. West Wind Drift
13. Monsoon Current
14. Equatorial Countercurrent
15. South Equatorial Current
16. Mozambique Current
17. West Wind Drift
18. Japan Current
19. North Equatorial Current
20. Equatorial Countercurrent
21. South Equatorial Current
22. East Australian Current

Tips to Remember: Just Remember the Cold current as they are lesser in Number, Rest all are warm currents. Here is Tips to Remember 10 Major Cold Ocean Currents. 

California Human Can be Ok in Australian Wind with Lab SoFa.
California Current
Humboldt (Peru) Current
Canaries Current
Benguela Current (Warm/Cool)
Okhotsk Current Current
West Australian Current
West Wind Drift
Labrador Current
South Atlantic Current
Falkland Current

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Major Industrial Regions

Major Industrial Regions of World: Major Industrial Regions of World is one of Subtopic under Geography of World and India which is one of main 11 Topics in RAS Pre Examination as per RAS Exam New Pattern from 2013, RAS 2016 and so on. will cover Notes on all topics of RAS Pre, Mains for RAS and other competitive examinations.
Geographic Distribution Major concentrations of modern manufacturing have flourished in a few number of places. These cover less than 10 per cent of the world’s land area. These nations have become the centres of economic and political power. The existence of a market for manufactured goods is the most important factor in the location of industries.

Important Factors for development of Industrial Regions:
  • Access to Market: The developed regions of Europe, North America, Japan and Australia provide large global markets as the purchasing power of the people is very high.
  • Access to Raw Material: Raw material used by industries should be cheap and easy to transport. Industries based on cheap, bulky and weight-losing material (ores) are located close to the sources of raw material such as steel, sugar, and cement industries.
  • Access to Labour Supply: Labour supply is an important factor in the location of industries.
  • Access to Sources of Energy: Industries which use more power are located close to the source of the energy supply such as the aluminium industry.
  • Access to Transportation and Communication Facilities: Speedy and efficient transport facilities to carry raw materials to the factory and to move finished goods to the market are essential for the development of industries. The cost of transport plays an important role in the location of industrial units.
  • Government Policy: Governments adopt ‘regional policies’ to promote ‘balanced’ economic development and hence set up industries in particular areas.
Classification of Industries
  • Industries based on Size: The amount of capital invested, number of workers employed and volume of production determine the size of industry. Accordingly, industries may be classified into household or cottage, small-scale and large-scale.
  • Industries based on Inputs/Raw Materials: On the basis of the raw materials used, the industries are classified as: (a) agro-based; (b) mineral based; (c) chemical based; (d) forest based: and (e) animal based.
  • Industries Based On Output/Product
    • Basic Industry: You have seen some machines and tools made of iron or steel. The raw material for such machines and tools is iron and steel. Which is itself an industry.
    • Consumer Goods: The consumer goods industries produced goods which are consumed by consumers directly. For example, industries producing breads and biscuits, tea, soaps and toiletries, paper for writing, televisions, etc. are consumer goods or non-basic industries.
  • Industries based on ownership:
    • Public Sector Industries are owned and managed by governments. In India, there were a number of Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) like ONGC, NTPC, SAIL, Coal India etc. Socialist countries have many state owned industries. Mixed economies have both Public and Private sector enterprises.
    • Private Sector Industries are owned by individual investors. These are managed by private organisations. In capitalist countries, industries are generally owned privately.
    • Joint Sector Industries are managed by joint stock companies or sometimes the private and public sectors together establish and manage the industries.
Major Industrial Regions of World:
  • Ruhr Coal-field, Germany: This has been one of the major industrial regions of Europe for a long time. Coal and iron and steel formed the basis of the economy, but as the demand for coal declined, the industry started shrinking. The Ruhr region is responsible for 80 per cent of Germany’s total steel production.
  • Iron and Steel Industry Regions
    • Iron and Steel industry forms the base of all other industries. 
    • In U.S.A, most of the production comes from the north Appalachian region (Pittsburgh), Great Lake region (Chicago-Gary, Erie, Cleveland, Lorain, Buffalo and Duluth) and the Atlantic Coast (Sparrows Point and Morisville). Pittsburg area is now losing ground. It has now become the “rust bowl” of U.S.A.
    • The important steel centres are Birmingham and Sheffield in the U.K.; Duisburg, Dortmund, Dusseldorf and Essen in Germany; Le Creusot and St. Ettienne in France; and Moscow, St. Petersburgh, Lipetsk, Tula, in Russia and Krivoi Rog, and Donetsk in Ukraine. 
    • In Asia, the important centres include Nagasaki and Tokyo-Yokohama in Japan; Shanghai, Tienstin and Wuhan in China. 
    • Jamshedpur, Kulti-Burnpur, Durgapur, Rourkela, Bhilai, Bokaro, Salem, Visakhapatnam and Bhadravati in India.
  • Cotton Textile Industry
    • Cotton textile industry has three sub-sectors i.e. handloom, powerloom and mill sectors.
    • Cotton textile manufacturing requires good quality cotton as raw material. India, China, U.S.A, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Egypt produce more than half of the world’s raw cotton.
  • High-tech industries, Silicon Valley
    • High technology, or simply high-tech, is the latest generation of manufacturing activities. It is best understood as the application of intensive research and development (R and D) efforts leading to the manufacture of products of an advanced scientific and engineering character. 
    • High-tech industries which are regionally concentrated, self-sustained and highly specialised are called technopolies. 
    • The Silicon Valley near San Francisco and Silicon Forest near Seattle are examples of technopolies.
  • Industrial Region of North America
    • Industrial region of USA & Canada comprise of The New England Regions, The New York - Mid-Atlantic Region, North - Eastern Region. The Southern Region, Western Region & Pacific Region. 
    • Industrial regions of Canada are Ontario & St. Lawrence Valley, Prairie Region & pacific coastal region. It includes cities of Quebec, Toronto, Hamilton, Vancouver, etc.
  • Industrial region of Europe
    • Industrial regions of united kingdom are Lancashire, London's basin, Scotland, Midland, South-Wales, etc. producing manufacturing products like engineering, ferrous, chemical textile, food & beverages, etc.
    • Industrial regions of Germany are The Saar Region, The Hamburg Region, Berlin Region & Leipzig Region with iron & steel heavy chemicals, textiles & different consumer goods Industries.
    • Industrial region of France produces iron & steel, textile, glass, leather, automobiles with Northern, Lorraine & Paris Industrial Regions. Other European countries like Italy, Switzerland, Holland Belgium, Sweden, etc. along with Russia are industrial giants.
  • Industrial Region of Asia
    • Industrial regions of China are the most dominant industrial power of Asia with industrial agglomerations in Manchurian region, Yangtze region, North-china region, South China region, etc. with many manufacturing units producing steel, heavy chemical's textiles, paper, cement, automobiles, toys, etc.
    • Industrial region of Japan has several industrial cities producing steel’s Pedro-chemical, cement, footwear. toys, etc. at Tokya-Yokohama region, Osaka - Kobe region, north Kyushu region.
    • Industrial regions of India are The Calcutta Conurbation, The Mumbai-Pune Industrial belt, Ahemadabad - Vadodara belt, Southern industrial regions with Chennai, Coimbatore, Bangalore industrial belt, Damodar Valley industrial belt, Northern Capital regions (NCR) with centers like Delhi, Noida, Gaziabad, Gurgaon, Manesar, Biwani etc.
Major Industrial Cities of World:
  • Montreal: Montreal's aerospace sector, Canada is comprised of more than 210 companies which employ 43,500. This city is the world's 4th largest center of aerospace manufacturing. It's the only area in the world where an entire aircraft be assembled from locally manufactured components.
  • Singapore: More than 30 biomedical sciences companies have established regional headquarters in the country. This sector contributes 4%-5% of the country's GDP.  Part of the attraction of this industry to the country is its IP protection which has been ranked the second best in the world. 
  • Taiwan: Taiwan's domestic optoelectronics industry is fifth of the world’s largest producers of TFT-flat screens are Taiwan-based. The sector manufactures high-precision, high-definition and color displays.
  • Mexico: Electronics manufacturing activity in Mexico is widespread. Guadalajara’s capital city, Jalisco, is regarded as the epicenter of this industrial sector. In the last 15 years, approximately $14 billion in investments have been made to make production stronger and more efficient.
  • Shenzen, China: Shenzen, which is located between Guangzhou and Hong Kong, is a large manufacturing center that has sprung up quickly. Incorporating the success of its neighbors, it is ranked fourth in China for industrial output. It has been manufacturing higher technology products than Guangzhou in general, with several of its own successful companies.
  • Barcelona: Barcelona has served as a crossroads of manufacturing -- a vital center of trading and shipping -- throughout the millennium now coming to a close. Its strategic location, on the Mediterranean Sea and near the border with France, has made its emergence as the principal industrial and commercial center of Spain inevitable.
  • Chicago: More than 80 years ago, when steelworkers and meat packers defined the spirit of Chicago, Carl Sandburg pronounced it the "City of the big shoulders." Today, when blue suits capture that spirit as well as blue collars, the name sticks. Chicago Metropolitan Area, is home to 29 Fortune 500 companies and is a transportation and distribution center. Manufacturing, printing, publishing, insurance and food processing also play major roles in the city's economy.
  • Detroit: Detroit is second largest source of architectural and engineering job opportunities in the U.S. Detroit is known as the automobile capital of the world, with the domestic auto industry primarily headquartered in Metro Detroit.
  • Houston: The story of Houston is the story of a lesson painfully but profitably learned. When oil prices collapsed in 1982, the city suffered. But as the community reeled, it also pledged it would do everything in its power to find a cure. Today, in addition to its strength in oil and gas exploration, basic petroleum refining, and petrochemical production, the area thrives on high technology, medical research, health care, and professional services. The economy of Houston is primarily based on the energy industry (particularly oil), however, health care, biomedical research, and aerospace also constitute large sectors of the city's economy.
  • Osaka: Osaka has the greatest number of manufacturing establishments in Japan with more than 18000 companies. It is an area where the artisan spirit lives on, with more than 60% of industrial production taking place in small and medium-sized enterprises. 
  • Randstad: The Randstad region of the Netherlands is a cornucopia of manufacturers engaged in everything from tobacco to information technology. But it is not merely the products that emerge from this thriving region that give it its world-class status. The Randstad earns its place by virtue of its holistic approach to manufacturing. Its impressive lineup of headquarters, logistics, and R&D facilities puts the region on the manufacturing map, and marks it with a gold star.  
  • San Jose: The capital of Silicon Valley, San Jose is considered to be the birthplace of the high-technology boom and the semiconductor industry. The spirit of innovation emanating from Silicon Valley remains the energy force that fuels high technology around the globe.  
  • São Paulo: The city now is the commercial center not only of Brazil, but also of South America. Besides its prominence in the chemical, textile, metalworking, and electronics industries, São Paulo is a driving force in world automobile production. No wonder the São Paulo metro area continues to attract all sorts of plants, including automotive.  
  • Seoul: The relationship between Seoul and Inchon stands as a model of the world-class manufacturing community. No one city can achieve world-class status alone. The bustling port city of Inchon is used to its best advantage by Seoul, whose own manufacturing base -- primarily textiles and apparel, chemicals and medicine, electrical products and electronics, and machinery -- supplies markets around the world. It comes as no surprise, then, that Seoul is at the forefront of the globalization of Korea.  
  • Shanghai: One of the largest cities in the world, Shanghai earns its world-class distinction by virtue of its position as the leading commercial and industrial center of China and for capitalizing on its strategic location with outstanding transportation links. Like São Paulo, Shanghai benefits greatly from its perception in the executive suites of foreign corporations. 
  • Tokyo: Tokyo, capital of the Kanto region and counterpart of Osaka in the Kansai region, is home to many of the world's largest manufacturers as well as thousands of smaller firms. Tokyo also is a headquarters community, with automakers among those who have found it an ideal setting for both corporate penthouses and plant floors.  
  • Toronto: Although Toronto serves as headquarters for a number of manufacturing firms, it is the North American auto industry that keeps it thriving. And when the cars and trucks roll off Toronto's assembly lines, many of them head straight to the U.S. A cosmopolitan city where culture and business walk hand in hand, Toronto is poised to be a symbol of the best of the best in Canada as a new century dawns. 
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Broad Physical features of World

Broad Physical features of World for RAS Exam: Broad Physical features of World is one of Subtopic under Geography of World and India which is one of main 11 Topics in RAS Pre Examination as per RAS Exam New Pattern from 2013, RAS 2016 and so on. will cover Notes on all topics of RAS Pre, Mains for RAS and other competitive examinations. You can refer below Links for RAS Notes of "Geography of World and India" in coming days. 
  • Geography IntroductionGeography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth. Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the physical science". Geography is divided into two main branches: human geography and physical geography.
  • Earth in Solar Planet
    • The sun, eight planets, satellites and some other celestial bodies known as asteroids and meteoroids form the solar system. We often call it a solar family, with the sun as its Head.
    • There are eight planets in our solar system. In order of their distance from the sun, they are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune
    • Till recently (August 2006), Pluto was also considered a planet. However, in a meeting of the International Astronomical Union, a decision was taken that Pluto like other celestial objects (Ceres, 2003 UB313) discovered in recent past may be called ‘dwarf planets.”
    • An easy way to memorise the name of the planets in order of their distance from the sun is: MY VERY EFFICIENT MOTHER JUST SERVED US NUTS.
  • Geographic Coordinates: Latitude, Longitude, Equator, Tropic of Cancer, Capricorn, Hemispheres, Torrid, Temperate zone.
  • Motions of the Earth
    • Earth has two types of motions, namely rotation and revolution
    • Rotation is the movement of the earth on its axis.  The earth takes about 24 hours to complete one rotation around its axis. The period of rotation is known as the earthday. This is the daily motion of the earth.
    • Revolution is the movement of the earth around the sun in a fixed path or orbit. It takes 365 days, 6 hours (one year) to revolve around the sun. 
    • Six hours saved every year are added to make one day (24 hours) over a span of four years. This surplus day is added to the month of February. Thus every fourth year, February is of 29 days instead of 28 days. Such a year with 366 days is called a leap year.
    • The longest day and the shortest night at these places occur on 21st June. At this time in the Southern Hemisphere all these conditions are reversed. It is winter season there. The nights are longer than the days. This position of the earth is called the Summer Solstice.
    • On 22nd December, the Tropic of Capricorn receives direct rays of the sun as the South Pole tilts towards it. As the sun’s rays fall vertically at the Tropic of Capricorn (23½° S), a larger portion of the Southern Hemisphere gets light. Therefore, it is summer in the Southern Hemisphere with longer days and shorter nights. The reverse happens in the Northern Hemisphere. This position of the earth is called the Winter Solstice.
    • On 21st March and September 23rd, direct rays of the sun fall on the equator. At this position, neither of the poles is tilted towards the sun; so, the whole earth experiences equal days and equal nights. This is called an equinox.
  • Structure of the Earth and its Layers
  • Earth - Physical characteristics
    • Earth is the third planet from the Sun, the densest planet in the Solar System and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
    • According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed about 4.54 billion years ago.
    • Mean radius = 6,371.0 km
    • Equatorial radius = 6,378.1 km
    • Polar radius = 6,356.8 km 
    • Surface area = 510,072,000 km2
    • Mass = 5.97237×10 *24 kg 
  • Earthquake and Earthquake Waves.
  • Maps
    • A map is a representation or a drawing of the earth’s surface or a part of it drawn on a flat surface according to a scale. There are three Components of Maps – distance, direction and symbol.
    • Physical Maps
    • Maps showing natural features of the earth such as mountains, plateaus, plains, rivers, oceans etc. are called physical or relief maps.
    • Political Maps: 
    • Maps showing cities, towns and villages, and different countries and states of the world with their boundaries are called political maps.
    • Thematic Maps
    • Some maps focus on specific information; such as road maps, rainfall maps, maps showing distribution of forests, industries etc. are known as thematic maps. Suitable titles are given on the basis of information provided in these maps.
  • Continents
    • There are 7 major continents. These are separated by large water bodies. These continents are – Asia, Europe, Africa, North America, South America, Australia and Antarctica.
    • Asia is the largest continent. It covers about one third of the total land area of the earth. The continent lies in the Eastern Hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer passes through this continent. Asia is separated from Europe by the Ural mountains on the west
    • Europe is much smaller than Asia. The continent lies to the west of Asia. The Arctic Circle passes through it. It is bound by water bodies on three sides.
    • Africa is the second largest continent after Asia. The Equator or 00 latitude runs almost through the middle of the continent. The Sahara Desert, the world’s largest hot desert, is located in Africa. The continent is bound on all sides by oceans and seas.
    • North America is the third largest continent of the world. It is linked to South America by a very narrow strip of land called the Isthmus of Panama.
    • South America lies mostly in the Southern Hemisphere. The Andes, world’s longest mountain range, runs through its length from north to south.
    • Australia is the smallest continent that lies entirely in the Southern Hemisphere. It is surrounded on all sides by the oceans and seas. It is called an island continent.
    • Antarctica, completely in the Southern Hemisphere, is a huge continent. As it is located in the South Polar Region, it is permanently covered with thick ice sheets. There are no permanent human settlements. Many countries have research stations in Antarctica. India also has research stations there. These are named as Maitri and Dakshin Gangotri.
  • Oceans
    • Oceans are the major part of hydrosphere. They are all interconnected.  The 5 major oceans are the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean and the Arctic Ocean, in order of their size.
    • Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean. It is spread over one-third of the earth. Mariana Trench, the deepest part of the earth, lies in the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Ocean is almost circular in shape. Asia, Australia North and South Americas surround it. 
    • Atlantic Ocean is the second largest Ocean in the world. It is ‘S’ shaped. It is flanked by the North and South Americas on the western side, and Europe and Africa on the eastern side. The coastline of Atlantic Ocean is highly indented. This irregular and indented coastline provides ideal location for natural harbours and ports. From the point of view of commerce, it is the busiest Ocean.
    • Indian Ocean is the only ocean named after a country, that is, India. The shape of ocean is almost triangular. In the north, it is bound by Asia, in the west by Africa and in the east by Australia.
    • Southern Ocean encircles the continent of Antarctica and extends northward to 60 degrees south latitude.
    • Arctic Ocean is located within the Arctic Circle and surrounds the North Pole. It is connected with the Pacific Ocean by a narrow stretch of shallow water known as Berring strait. It is bound by northern coasts of North America and Eurasia.
  • Atmosphere
    • The earth is surrounded by a layer of gas called the atmosphere. This thin blanket of air is an integral and important aspect of the planet.
    • The atmosphere is divided into five layers based on composition, temperature and other properties. These layers starting from earth’s surface are called the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, the thermosphere and the exosphere.
    • The atmosphere is composed mainly of nitrogen and oxygen, which make up about 99 per cent of clean, dry air. 
    • Nitrogen 78 per cent, oxygen 21 per cent and other gases like carbondioxide, argon and others comprise 1 per cent by volume.
  • Earth's Atmosphere Layers
  • Biosphere
    • The biosphere is the narrow zone of contact between the land, water and air. 
    • It is in this zone that life, that is unique to this planet, exists. 
    • The organisms in the biosphere may broadly be divided into the plant kingdom and the animal kingdom.
  • Major Landforms of the Earth
    • Mountains is any natural elevation of the earth surface. The mountains may have a small summit and a broad base. It is considerably higher than the surrounding area.
    • There are three types of mountains- Fold Mountains, Block Mountains and the Volcanic Mountains.
      • The Aravali range in India is one of the oldest fold mountain systems in the world. The range has considerably worn down due to the processes of erosion. The Appalachians in North America and the Ural mountains in Russia  have rounded features and low elevation. They are very old fold mountains.
      • Block Mountains are created when large areas are broken and displaced vertically. The uplifted blocks are termed as horsts and the lowered blocks are called graben. The Rhine valley and the Vosges mountain in Europe are examples of such mountain systems.
      • Volcanic mountains are formed due to volcanic activity. Mt.Kilimanjaro in Africa and Mt.Fujiyama in Japan are examples of such mountains.
    • Plateau is an elevated flat land. It is a flat-topped table land standing above the surrounding area. A plateau may have one or more sides with steep slopes. The height of plateaus often varies from few hundred metres to several thousand metres. Plateaus, like mountains may be young or old. The Deccan plateau in India is one of the oldest plateaus.
    • Plains are large stretches of flat land. They are, generally, not more than 200 metres above mean sea level. Some plains are extremely level. Others may be slightly rolling and undulating. Most of the plains are formed by rivers and their tributaries.
Candidates who are appearing for RAS / IAS / SSC and other competitive examination might need more study materials like Daily Current Affairs MCQs with Explanations, GK Notes, Old Exam Papers and Important Questions on various topics, can download our FREE Android App which includes 300+ Solved Exam Papers and Updated daily in Hindi and English. Download Links are:

Geography of World and India

Geography of World and India for RAS Exam: Geography of World and India is one of main 11 Topics in RAS Pre Examination as per RAS Exam New Pattern from 2013, RAS 2016 and so on. will cover Notes on all topics of RAS Pre, Mains for RAS and other competitive examinations. You can refer below Links for RAS Notes of "Geography of World and India" in coming days. 
  • World Geography:
  • Geography of India:
    • Broad physical features and Major physiographic divisions.
    • Agriculture and Agro based Activities.
    • Minerals – Iron, Manganese, Coal, Oil & Gas, Atomic minerals.
    • Major Industries and Industrial development.
    • Transportation– major transport corridors.
    • Natural Resources.
    • Environmental Problems and Ecological Issues.
Candidates who are appearing for RAS / IAS / SSC and other competitive examination might need more study materials like Daily Current Affairs MCQs with Explanations, GK Notes, Old Exam Papers and Important Questions on various topics, can download our FREE Android App which includes 300+ Solved Exam Papers and Updated daily in Hindi and English. Download Links are:

RPSC 2nd Grade Teacher 6468 Vacancy 2016 Notification, Apply ONLINE

Rajasthan Public Service Commission (RPSC), Ajmer as per Recruitment Advt. No. 03/2016-17 invites ONLINE application for the following  posts of  Sr. Teachers Research Assistant in  Rajasthan Government:
Job Post: Sr. Teacher Grade-II
Total Post: 6468 posts (Hindi-1269, English-626, Math-442, Science-248, Social Science - 1531, Sanskrit-2295, Urdu-39, Punjabi-18)
Pay Scale : Rs. 9300-34800 grade pay Rs. 4200/-
Age : 18-35 years as on 01/01/2017
How to Apply: Eligible and interested candidates should go through detail notification and apply Online at RPSC website from 25th July to 31st August 2016
For Online Apply visit:

Current Affairs July 2016

Current Affairs July 2016 UpdatesCurrent Affairs General Knowledge(GK) updates for RAS/ IAS/ Bank Jobs as part of Current Affairs. Question of Rajasthan GK, India GK and World GK will be updated daily during whole month of June 2016.  For Current Affairs Live Updates Follow us on  GOOGLE+
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Current Affairs for July 2016- Daily Updates:

  • राजस्थान सरकार ने वरिष्ठ आईएएस अधिकारी ओपी मीणा को मुख्य सचिव बनाया है। वे राज्य के पहले अनुसूचित जनजाति वर्ग का प्रतिनिधित्व करने वाले मुख्य सचिव है। मुख्य सचिव की दौड़ में 1979 बैच के आईएएस अधिकारी ओपी मीणा के अलावा 1981 बैच के अशोक जैन, 1982 बैच के निहाल चंद गोयल और 1983 बैच के डीबी गुप्ता भी शामिल थे। चूरू, बाड़मेर, कोटा में कलेक्टर, राजस्थान रोडवेज निगम के एमडी, खाद्य एवं नागरिक आपूर्ति विभाग में प्रमुख शासन सचिव, वन विभाग में अतिरिक्त मुख्य सचिव पद पर रहे हैं।" CHECK MCQs with Explanation at RAJASTHAN GK App
  • राजस्थान  सरकार ने 1 जुलाई को आदेश जारी कर जया दवे को राजस्थान संस्कृत अकादमी का अध्यक्ष मनोनीत किया है। आदेशानुसार जया दवे को राजस्थान संस्कृत अकादमी के विधान की धारा 5 (क) के तहत 3 वर्ष की अवधि के लिए मनोनीत किया है। CHECK MCQs with Explanation at RAJASTHAN GK App
  • राजस्थान सरकार ने 1 जुलाई को पूर्व मुख्य सचिव श्री सी.एस. राजन को मुख्यमंत्री सलाहकार परिषद में पूर्ण कालिक उपाध्यक्ष नियुक्त किया है। आदेश के अनुसार श्री राजन केन्द्र एवं राज्य सरकार की मुख्य फ्लेगशिप योजनाओं भामाशाह डायरेक्ट बेनिफिट ट्रांसफर स्कीम, मुख्यमंत्री जल स्वावलम्बन योजना, भामाशाह स्वास्थ्य बीमा योजना, आरोग्य राजस्थान ग्रामीण और गौरव पथ, कौशल एवं आजीविका, स्वच्छ भारत योजना, राजश्री योजना, न्याय आपके द्वार ग्लोबल राजस्थान एग्रीटेक मीट एवं अन्नपूर्णा भण्डार योजना की समीक्षा एवं मॉनिटरिंग करेंगे। CHECK MCQs with Explanation at RAJASTHAN GK App
  • राजस्थान देश का पहला राज्य बन गया है, जिसमें अंशकालिक (पार्ट टाइम) श्रमिकों की न्यूनतम मजदूरी दर निर्धारित करने का निर्णय लिया है। अब अंशकालिक श्रमिक को चार घंटे से कम कार्य करने पर न्यूनतम मजदूरी का 50 प्रतिशत मिलेगा और चार घंटे से अधिक कार्य करने पर उसे पूरे दिन की मजदूरी मिलेगी। श्रम राज्य मंत्री श्री सुरेन्द्र पाल सिंह टीटी ने बताया कि राज्य सरकार ने अपने कार्यकाल में तीसरी बार न्यूनतम मजदूरी की दरें बढ़ाई हैं। इस प्रकार तीनों बढ़ोतरी को मिलाकर श्रमिकों की मजदूरी में प्रतिमाह 910 रुपए की वृद्धि की गई है। उन्होंने बताया कि वर्तमान में अकुशल श्रमिक को 197 रुपए प्रतिदिन प्राप्त हो रहे थे अब उन्हें 201 रुपए प्रतिदिन, अर्द्धकुशल श्रमिक को 207 रुपए के स्थान पर 211 रुपए, कुशल श्रमिक को 217 रुपए के स्थान पर 221 रुपए एवं उच्च कुशल श्रमिक को 267 रुपए के स्थान पर 271 रुपए प्रतिदिन मिलेंगे। CHECK MCQs with Explanation at RAJASTHAN GK App
  • मुख्यमंत्री श्रीमती वसुन्धरा राजे  7 जुलाई को दो देशों की यात्रा पर नई दिल्ली के इंदिरा गांधी अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय हवाई अड्डे से सेंट पीटर्सबर्ग (रूस) के लिए रवाना हुईं। उनके साथ मुख्यमंत्री सलाहाकार परिषद के उपाध्यक्ष श्री सी.एस. राजन, मुख्यमंत्री के प्रमुख विशेषाधिकारी श्री अरिजीत बनर्जी और अन्य अधिकारीगण भी रवाना हुए हैं।  श्रीमती राजे के नेतृत्व में प्रतिनिधि मण्डल सेंट पीटर्सबर्ग में पर्यटन एवं अन्य क्षेत्रों के विषय में अधिकारियों एवं विशेषज्ञों के साथ चर्चा करेगा।मुख्यमंत्री रूस के येकतेरिनबर्ग एवं माॅस्को शहरों में विभिन्न बैठकों में भाग लेंगी। श्रीमती राजे 15 से 17 जुलाई तक संयुक्त अरब अमीरात के दुबई की यात्रा पर रहेंगी, जहां नगरीय विकास मंत्री श्री राजपाल सिंह शेखावत एवं जयपुर विकास आयुक्त श्री शिखर अग्रवाल राज्य के प्रतिनिधि मण्डल में शामिल होंगे। मुख्यमंत्री का 18 जुलाई को स्वदेश लौटने का कार्यक्रम प्रस्तावित है।  CHECK MCQs with Explanation at RAJASTHAN GK App

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