Rajasthan Current Affairs for 2016

Rajasthan Current Affairs from January to August 2016: Rajasthan Current Affairs for Year 2016 is one of main part of RAS Pre examinations. Here is Collection of Current Affairs General Knowledge(GK) for RAS examination aspirants in the form of Video and PDF Files. 

Rajasthan Gram Sevak Admit Card 2016

Rajasthan Gram Sevak Admit Card 2016: Rajasthan Subordinate and Ministerial Services Selection Board, Jaipur (राजस्थान अधीनस्थ एवं मंत्रालयिक सेवा चयन बोर्ड, जयपुर) has issued Admit Card / Call letters for 3948 post of Gram Sevak  (ग्राम सेवक) and Hostel Superintendent Grade II scheduled on 18th December 2016. 

Download Rajasthan Gram Sevak Admit Card 2016 at official website of RSMSSB, Jaipur: 

RAS 2013 Interview Results

RAS 2013 Interview Results: Rajasthan Public Service Commission (RPSC), Ajmer has declared Interview Results of Rajasthan Admin. Services (RAS) Combined Competitive Exam 2013 Final Results  on 7th December 2016. RPSC Ajmer has uploaded the RAS Final results 2013 Examination results and cut-off marks on official website of RPSC, Ajmer i.e. www.rpsc.rajasthan.gov.in 

Check RAS 2013 Final results: https://rpsc.rajasthan.gov.in/Result_Search.aspx?Frm=RAS_INTV&Pie=RAS_2013_FINAL_07122016

RAS Main 2016 New Exam Syllabus, Pattern

RAS Mains New Exam Syllabus, Pattern in English, Hindi: Rajasthan Public Service Commission (RPSC), Ajmer on 29th September 2016 has issued New Pattern for RAS Mains 2016 with Minor changes including removal of Rajasthani Language from Syllabus. RPSC, Ajmer issue Syllabus for RAS/RTS Comb. Comp. (Mains) Exam - 2016 at its official websites now Paper 4 will have 120 Marks for Hindi instead of 100 Marks earlier.
You can check New RAS Main 2016 New Exam Syllabus, Pattern at official website of RPSC, Ajmer

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RAS Pre Result 2016, Cut Off Marks

RAS Pre Exam Results 2016: Rajasthan Public Service Commission (RPSC), Ajmer has declared Results of Rajasthan Admin. Services (RAS) Combined Competitive Prelims Examination 2016  on 15th September 2016 for which examination was held on 28th August 2016 at all district headquarters of Rajasthan. RPSC Ajmer has uploaded the RAS Pre 2016 Examination results and cut-off marks on official website of RPSC, Ajmer i.e. www.rpsc.rajasthan.gov.in 
RAS PRE 2016, Cut Off Marks once again raised the Question on Reservation system when OBC Candidates scoring Higher marks are rejected with General and OBC-Creamy Layer candidates with lower score qualify for mains, which is clear violation of Reservation and Creamy Layer concept and expected to face court through candidates scoring higher marks fails to qualify for mains. 

RAS PRE 2018 Answer Key, Cut Off Marks

Check RAS Pre Result 2016 in PDF File with Roll No

Check RAS PRE 2016 Cut-Off Marks category wise:

For GK, Current Affais Download: tinyurl.com/IndiaGK

RAS Pre 2016 Answer Key, Question Paper, Cut Off

RAS Pre 2016 Answer Key, Question Paper, Possible Cut Off, Solutions for Exam held Today, 28th August 2016: RPSC, Ajmer Today, 28th August 2016 conducted Rajasthan Admin. Services (RAS) Prelims Examination 2016 (Sunday) at all district headquarters of Rajasthan. RAS Pre 2016 Answer Key, Question Paper, Possible category wise Cut Off for GEN, OBC, SBC, SC, ST, PWD and other category with Solutions is uploaded below to share and discuss with friends on Facebook, WhatsApp and social Media. 
The main portion and question in RAS Pre are: Aptitude Questions, Rajasthan GK, India GK, World GK and Current Affairs, Paper was slightly easy than RAS Pre 2016 so expecting 10-15% higher cut-off as compare to last year paper.

RAS PRE 2016 Resuts declared on 15th September 2016

Check RAS Pre 2016 Official ANSWER Key issued by RPSC, Ajmer on 30th August 2016.

Check RAS Pre 2016 Full Paper Solved

"Check all RAS Exam Papers Solved at:

  • Rajasthan GK App: tinyurl.com/RajasthanGK 

  • INDIA GK App: tinyurl.com/IndiaGK

  • RAS Pre 2016 Expected Cut Off, Category wise: :
    • Gen/OBC Cut Off = 76-83
    • SC Cut Off = 72-78
    • ST Cut Off = 70-77
    • PWD-L = No separate cut-off
    • PWD-V-H = 45-55
    RAS Pre 2016 Answer Key, Solved Question Paper:
    How many times President Rule has been imposed in the state of Rajasthan till 30th June 2016 ?
    A. 6 times
    B. 5 times
    C. 4 Times
    D. 3 Times
    Answer: C. 4 Times (President Rule in Rajasthan)

    Delimitation commission of 1952 had determined the strenght of Rajasthan Legislative assembly as ?
    A. 188
    B. 200
    C. Three MLA for each district
    D. 160
    Answer: D (The strength of the Rajasthan Legislative Assembly which is determined by delimitation Commission, was 160 in 1952 and presently stands as 200 after many more recommendations of the same Commission.)

    Before the appointment of Shri Kalyan singh ass the governor of Rajasthan who among the following was the acting governor of the state ?
    A. Ram Naik
    B. OP Kohli
    C. Margaret Alva
    D. Ram Naresh Yadav
    Answer: A (Ram Naik work as Governor of Rajasthan with additional charge from 7 August 2014 to 4 September 2014, while Kalyan Singh took charge on 4th September 2016.

    Among the following, whose tenure has been the longest as the chairman of RPSC ?
    A. DS Tewari
    B. Mohammad Yaqub
    C. CR Choudhary
    D. Yatindra Singh
    Answer: A ( DS Tewari was RPSC Chairman for 7 years from 8th August 1951 to 20 January 1958)

    The procedure of Impeachment of the President of India is 
    A. Legislative 
    B. Judicial
    C. Executive
    D. Quasi-Judicial
    Answer: D (The word 'Impeachment' is an origin of British convention which means to remove a Government official without any official agreement and after the impeachment conviction has been provided to that official. In India, it is a quasi-judicial procedure and President can only be impeached on the ground of violation of the Constitution.)

    When was Rajasthan Information Commission constituted ?
    A. April 18, 2007
    B. April 18, 2008
    C. April 18, 2005
    D. April 18, 2006
    Answer: D (Rajasthan Information Commission (RIC) was constituted by the state Government of Rajasthan with installing Shri M.D. Kaurani, as the first Chief Information Commissioner on April 18, 2006.) In the history of Rajasthan Legislative Assembly till 30 June 2016, How many times the confidence motion has been moved and discussed ? Please discuss.

    Select the correct Answer:
    State Election Commission of Rajasthan
    A. a constitutional authority
    B. a statutory Authority
    C. A unit of election commission of India
    D. an executive authority
    Answer: C
    ECI Website says: State Election Commissions constituted under the Constitution (Seventy-third and Seventy-fourth) Amendments Act, 1992 for each State / Union Territory are vested with the powers of conduct of elections to the Corporations, Municipalities, Zilla Parishads, District Panchayats, Panchayat Samitis, Gram Panchayats and other local bodies. They are independent of the Election Commission of India.

    How Many times elections have been held for Panchayati Raj Institution in Rajasthan till 2015 ?
    A. 9 times
    B. 5 times
    C. 10 times
    D. 8 times
    Answer: D

    A. a programme to de-addict all the wine users
    B. a programme to de-addict all the doda post users
    C. all of above
    D. a programme to de-addict all the tobaccco users
    Answer: B. (नया सवेरा Scheme in Rajasthan)

    Mukhyamantri Nishulk Dava Yojana in Rajasthan was launched on ?
    A. 2 October 2011
    B. 2 September 2011
    C. 2 October 2010
    D. 2 September 2010
    Answer: A (Mukhyamantri Nishulk Dava Yojana in Rajasthan)

    Which of the following external agency is providing financial assistance for Rajasthan Renewable Energy Transmission Investment Program ?
    A. Asian Development Bank
    B. World Bank
    C. KFW Germany
    D. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)
    Answer: A
    Check Details: http://www.adb.org/projects/documents/mff-rajasthan-renewable-energy-transmission-investment-program-ippf

    How many district Industries centres are working in Rajasthan
    A. 31
    B. 36
    C. 29
    D. 33
    Answer:B (There are 36 District Industries Centres (DICs) working in the State and 7 District Industries Sub-Centres at Abu Road, Balotra, Beawar, Falna, Kishangarh, Makrana and Neemrana have also been set up to cater to the needs of small scale industries of the area. Headquarter office of the Department is situated at Udyog Bhawan, Tilak Marg, Jaipur. )

    One of the following is not the Objective of Chief Ministers Subh Laxmi Yojana in Rajasthan
    A. to encourage registration of Girl child birth
    B. to promote the birth of girl child
    C. to help pregnant girls
    D. to prevent child marriage
    Answer:  C

    The Chemical Formula of Baking Soda is ?
    A. Na2CO3
    B. CaCO3
    C. NaHCO3
    D. Ca(OH)2
    Answer: C

    The ancient city which is mentioned in the Mahabharata and Mahabhashya both?
    A. Viratnagar (Bairath)
    B. Madhyamika (Nagari)
    C. Raidh
    D. Karkot
    Answer: B

    The inscription which proves the influence of Bhagwat Cult in Ancient Rajasthan is?
    A. Ghatiyala Inscription
    B. Besnagar Inscription of Heliodorous
    C. Buchkala Inscription
    D. Ghosundi Inscription

    Who amongst the following scholars was not in the court of Kumbha?
    A. Tilla Bhatt
    B. Muni Sunder suri
    C. Muni Jin Vijay Suri
    D. Natha
    Answer: C

    With which of the following areas of Rajasthan the alibakshi khayal is associated?
    A. Karauli
    B. Chidawa
    C. Alwar
    D. Chittor
    Answer: C

    Shankariya dance of rajasthan is related to?
    A. Kalbeliya
    B. Bhil
    C. Sahariya
    D. Terahtali
    Answer: A

    Which of the following pairs is correctly matched?
    A. Pundrika Vitala – Raagmala
    B. Pandit Bhavbhatt – Sangeetraj
    C. Kumbha – Ragakalpadrum
    D. Ustad Chand Khan – Ragachandrika
    Answer: A

    Which of the following is not correctly matched?
    A. Begun – Ram Narayan choudhary
    B. Bundi  - Naynu ram Sharma
    C. Bijoliya – Vijay Singh Pathik
    D. Bikaner – Narrotam Lal Joshi
    Answer: D

    What is the meaning of Patta Rekh in the history of Rajasthan?
    A. Expected revenue
    B. Military tax
    C. Export-import tax
    D. Begar
    Answer: A

    Where was the headquarter of Shekhawati Brigade Located?
    A. Sikar
    B. Jhunjhunu
    C. Khetri
    D. Fatehpur
    Answer: B

    Which one of the following newspapers of pre-independence rajasthan was not the promoter of arya samaj ideology?
    A. Desh Hiteshi
    B. Janhitkarak
    C. Prapkarak
    D. Rajputana Gazette
    Answer: D

    The latest android Mobile operating system 6.0 is named as ?
    A. Lollipop
    B. Kitkat
    C. Jelly Beam
    D. Marshmallow
    Answer: D (Marshmallow is Android Mobile Operating system 6.0, However latest 'Version in Android 7.0 launched in July 2016 named 'Nougat'. But here Correct answer is D. 

    Which district has become the first one in India to get connected to the High speed Rural Broadband Network ?
    A. Idukki District of Kerala
    B. Bangalore District of Karnataka
    C. Pune District of Maharashtra
    D. Vidisha District of MP
    Answer: A

    DRDO has developed a drug named, LOKOSKIN. It is being used in the treatment of ... ?
    A. Lung cancer
    B. Leukemia
    C. Leukorrhea
    D. Leucoderma
    Answer: D (Source DRDO Website )

    Since 1997-98, which statement is correct regarding Minimum Support Price (MSP)?
    A. MSP is independent to C2 Cost
    B. MSP<C2 costs
    C. MSP>C2 costs
    D. MSP=C2 cost
    Answer: C ( Minimum Support Price (MSP), C2 Cost, C3 Cost and CACP Methodology)

    Geography of India and World Quiz

    Geography of India and World Quiz, Objective Questions: Geography of India and World Quiz for RAS Examination as per net pattern of RAS and other examination with short explanation. This question from NCERT Books of Social Science, Geography Class 6 to Class 10.

    The planet known as the “Earth’s Twin” is
    A. Jupiter 
    B. Saturn 
    C. Venus
    D. Mars
    Answer: C
    Explanation: Venus is considered as ‘Earth’s-twin’ because its size and shape are very much similar to that of the earth.

    Which is the third nearest planet to the sun ?
    A. Venus 
    B. Earth 
    C. Mercury
    D. Jupiter
    Answer: B
    Explanation: There are eight planets in our solar system. In order of their distance from the sun, they are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

    All the planets move around the sun in a
    A. Circular path 
    B. Rectangular path 
    C. Elongated path
    D. Straight Path
    Answer: C
    Explanation: All the eight planets of the solar system move around the sun in fixed paths. These paths are elongated. They are called orbits. 

    Pole Star indicates which direction ?
    A. South 
    B. North 
    C. East
    D. West
    Answer: B
    Explanation: In ancient times, people used to determine directions during the night with the help of stars. The North star indicates the north direction. It is also called the Pole Star. It always remains in the same position in the sky. 

    Asteroids are found between the orbits of
    A. Saturn and Jupiter 
    B. Mars and Jupiter 
    C. Earth and Mars
    D. Earth and Venus
    Answer: B
    Explanation: Apart from the stars, planets and satellites, there are numerous tiny bodies which also move around the sun. These bodies are called asteroids. They are found between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter 

    Which is the closest celestial body to our earth ?
    A. Sun
    B. Moon
    C. Jupitar
    D. Pluto
    Answer: B
    Explanation: The sun, the moon and all those objects shining in the night sky are called celestial bodies. Some celestial bodies are very big and hot. They are made up of gases. They have their own heat and light, which they emit in large amounts. These celestial bodies are called stars. The sun is a star. 

    The southernmost Himalayas are known as
    A. Shiwaliks 
    B. Himadri 
    C. Himachal
    D. Arawali
    Answer: B
    Explanation: The northernmost is the Great Himalaya or Himadri. The world’s highest peaks are located in this range. Middle Himalaya or Himachal lies to the south of Himadri. Many popular hill stations are situated here.  The Shiwalik is the southernmost range.

    Sahyadris is also known as
    A. Aravali 
    B. Upper Himalaya
    C. Western Ghats 
    D. Himadri
    Answer: C
    Explanation: The Western Ghats or Sahyadris border the plateau in the west and the Eastern Ghats provide the eastern boundary.  While the Western Ghats are almost continuous, the Eastern Ghats are broken and uneven. 

    Corals are skeletons of tiny marine animals called ----- ?
    A. Ant
    B.  Sea Otter
    C. Polyps
    D. White Shark
    Answer: C
    Explanation: Corals are skeletons of tiny marine animals called Polyps. When the living polyps die, their skeletons are left. Other poplyps grow on top of the hard skeleton which grows higher and higher, thus forming the coral islands.

    The Palk Strait lies between the countries
    A. Sri Lanka and Maldives
    B. India and Sri Lanka
    C. India and Maldives
    D. India and Bangladesh
    Answer: B
    Explanation: Sri Lanka is separated from India by the Palk Strait.

    The oldest mountain range in India is the
    A. Aravali hills 
    B. Western ghats 
    C. Himalayas
    D. Vindhyachal
    Answer: A
    Explanation: Aravali hills, one of the oldest ranges of the world, border it on the north-west side. The Vindhyas and the Satpuras are the important ranges.

    The latitude that runs almost halfway through India is ---- ?
    A. Tropic of Cancer
    B. Equator
    C. Standard Meridian of India
    D. Tropic of Capricorn
    Answer: A
    Explanation: India is located in the northern hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer (23°30'N) passes almost halfway through the country. From south to north, main land of India extends between 8°4'N and 37°6'N latitudes.

    The world’s highest rainfall occurs in
    A. Mumbai 
    B. Asansol 
    C. Mawsynram
    D. Phalodi
    Answer: C
    Explanation: Climate of a place is affected by its location, altitude, distance from the sea, and relief. Mawsynram in Meghalaya receives the world’s highest rainfall, while in a particular year it might not rain at all in Jaisalmer in Rajasthan.

    Mangrove forests can thrive in
    A. saline water 
    B. fresh water 
    C. polluted water
    D. None of above
    Answer: A
    Explanation: Mangrove forests can survive in saline water. They are found mainly in Sunderbans in West Bengal and in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Sundari is a well-known species of trees in mangrove forests after which Sunderbans have been named.

    RAS Pre Admit Card 2016

    Admit Card for RAS Pre 2016 on 28th August 2016: Rajasthan Public Service Commission (RPSC), Ajmer on 16th August has issued Admit Card / Call letters for Rajasthan Administrative Services (RAS) Pre 2016 which will be held on 28th August 2016 will be held in District headquarters. Now candidates are looking for RAS Pre 2016 Exam Admit card can download admit card from official website of RPSC, Ajmer i.e. www.rpsc.rajasthan.gov.in from 16th August 2016 onwards with the help of Application ID and Date of Birth.
    Candidates are advised to download RAS Pre Admit Card 2016 from below website link. If any candidates have discrepancy in Names, Fathers Name, DoB, Category then they can apply for change with application letter with Rs. 300 Postal order to RSPC, Ajmer. Check Press Note for Admit card, Correction.

    Website Link for Admit Card of RAS Pre 2016


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    Rajasthan Sewerage and Waste Water Policy 2016

    Rajasthan Sewerage and Waste Water Policy 2016: Rajasthan state approve Sewerage and Waste Water Policy 2016 on 2nd August 2016. Here is some of Highlights of Rajasthan Sewerage and Waste Water Policy 2016.
    • Rajasthan is the first state in the country to bring Sewerage and Water Water Policy.
    • The Policy has been prepared after having studied laws of 15 different places. It has been formulated keeping in view the requirements of the state in the next 30 years.
    • Under the policy it has been ascertained that all houses in urban areas connected to the waste water sanitation system so that waste water does not flow on roads and sewerage water gets properly treated. 
    • Policy includes an implementation plan which envisages achieving the service level benchmark with connecting all urban houses with waste water sanitation network in a time frame. For District headquarters, National Capital Region, NCR towns, heritage towns, cities having partial coverage and cities with water supply level more than 135 lpcd and cities with population above 1 lakh the time frame has been set for five years.
    • Cities with population above 50 thousand and less than 1 lakh the time frame has been set for 10 years and cities with population below 50 thousand the time frame has been set for 15 years. 
    • Provision has been made for sale of treated water and it was decided that treated waste water would be sold in a transparent manner. 

    Current Affairs August 2016

    Current Affairs August 2016 Rajasthan, India, WorldCurrent Affairs General Knowledge(GK) updates for RAS/ IAS/ Bank Jobs as part of Current Affairs. Question of Rajasthan GK, India GK and World GK will be updated daily during whole month of August 2016.  For Current Affairs Live Updates Follow us on  GOOGLE+
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    Structure of the Earth

    Structure of the Earth: The interior structure of the Earth is layered in spherical shells, like an onion. These layers can be defined by their chemical and their rheological properties. Earth has an outer silicate solid crust, a highly viscous mantle, a liquid outer core that is much less viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core. Scientific understanding of the internal structure of the Earth is based on observations of topography and bathymetry, observations of rock in outcrop, samples brought to the surface from greater depths by volcanoes or volcanic activity, analysis of the seismic waves that pass through the Earth, measurements of the gravitational and magnetic fields of the Earth.

    This Topic is Part of Broad Physical features of World

    The Crust
    • It is the outermost solid part of the earth. It is brittle in nature. 
    • The thickness of the crust varies under the oceanic and continental areas.
    • Oceanic crust is thinner as compared to the continental crust. The mean thickness of oceanic crust is 5 km whereas that of the continental is around 30 km.
    The Mantle
    • The portion of the interior beyond the crust is called the mantle. The mantle extends from Moho’s discontinuity to a depth of 2,900 km.
    • The mantle contains a weaker zone called asthenosphere.
    • It is from this that the molten rock materials find their way to the surface.
    • The material in the upper mantle portion is called magma.
    • Once it starts moving towards the crust or it reaches the surface, it is referred to as lava.
    The Core
    • The coremantle boundary is located at the depth of 2,900 km. The core is made up of very heavy material mostly constituted by nickel and iron. It is sometimes referred to as the nife layer.
    • The Core is divided into two layers: Outer Core and Inner Core.
      • Outer core is in liquid state. The liquid outer core surrounds the inner core and is believed to be composed of iron mixed with nickel and trace amounts of lighter elements.
      • Inner core is in solid state. Inner Core was discovered in 1936 by Inge Lehmann and is generally believed to be composed primarily of iron and some nickel. It is not necessarily a solid, but, because it is able to deflect seismic waves, it must behave as a solid in some fashion.
    Candidates who are appearing for RAS / IAS / SSC and other competitive examination might need more study materials like Daily Current Affairs MCQs with Explanations, GK Notes, Old Exam Papers and Important Questions on various topics, can download our FREE Android App which includes 300+ Solved Exam Papers and Updated daily in Hindi and English. Download Links are:

    Rajasthan State Forest Policy 2010

    Rajasthan State Forest Policy 2010: Rajasthan Cabinet in February 2010 approved the State’s first ever Forest Policy along with new policies on livestock development and water. Forest Policy draft approved by the Cabinet contains an ambitious target to increase the forest cover in the desert State to 20% from the existing 9.5%, satellite imagery puts it at 7.1 per cent by carrying out massive afforestation programme under “Harit Rajasthan” scheme. The draft suggests making use of the funds from the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme to carry out tree plantation in the Indira Gandhi Canal areas and elsewhere where the forests can be re-generated.

    Rajasthan State Forest Policy 2010 Highlights:

    • Forest area of the state is only 9.56% of its total geographic area which is mainly confined to Aravallis and Vindhayan hill ranges of the Rajasthan.
    • The per capita forest area is only 0.06ha, which is one of the lowest in the country.
    • The basic objectives of state forest policy of rajasthan are as follows:
      • Protecting, conserving and developing natural forest in rajasthan with active participation of local community.
      • Increasing the productivity of forests through appropriate management interventions and use of modern technology to meet the needs of present as well as future generations.
      • Combating desertification and preventing all kinds of land degradation
      • Conservating floral and natural diversity and gene pool reserve through a network of protected areas.
      • Empowering the village communities for sustainable management of forest under join forest management system
      • The principal aim of forest policy is environmental stability and ecological security through increasing vegetate cover which will lead to reduction in stratospheric temperature is likely to increase the possibility of rains.
    Check Full Rajasthan State Forest Policy 2010 in PDF

    International Waterways

    International WaterwaysInternational Waterways is one of Subtopic under Geography of World and India which is one of main 11 Topics in RAS Pre Examination as per RAS Exam New Pattern from 2013, RAS 2016 and so on. www.rasexam.com will cover Notes on all topics of RAS Pre, Mains for RAS and other competitive examinations
    Ocean transport is a cheaper means of haulage (carrying of load) of bulky material over long distances from one continent to another. 
    Important Ocean Routes
    • Northern Atlantic Sea Route
      • Northern Atlantic Sea Route links North-eastern U.S.A. and North western Europe, the two industrially developed regions of the world. 
      • The foreign trade over this route is greater than that of the rest of the world combined.
      • One fourth of the world’s foreign trade moves on this route. It is, therefore, the busiest in the world and otherwise, called the Big Trunk Route. Port Said, Aden, Mumbai, Colombo and Singapore are some of the important ports on this route. 
      • The construction of Suez canal has greatly reduced the distance and time as compared to the earlier route through the Cape of Good Hope.
    • Mediterranean–Indian Ocean Route 
      • Mediterranean–Indian Ocean Route route connects the highly industrialised Western European region with West Africa, South Africa, South-east Asia and the commercial agriculture and livestock economies of Australia and New Zealand. 
      • Before the construction of the Suez Canal this was the route connecting Liverpool and Colombo which was 6,400 km longer than the Suez Canal route.
    • Cape of Good Hope Sea Route
      • Cape of Good Hope Sea Route is another important one across the Atlantic Ocean which connects West European and West African countries with Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay in South America.
    • North Pacific Sea Route
      • North Pacific Sea Route links the ports on the west-coast of North America with those of Asia. These are Vancouver, Seattle, Portland, San Francisco and Los Angeles on the American side and Yokohama, Kobe, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Manila and Singapore on the Asian side.
    • South Pacific Sea Route
      • South Pacific Sea Route connects Western Europe and North America with Australia, New Zealand and the scattered Pacific islands via the Panama Canal. Honolulu is an important port on this route.
    Shipping Canals
    • Suez Canal
      • Suez Canal had been constructed in 1869 in Egypt between Port Said in the north and Port Suez in the south linking the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.
      • It is a sea-level canal without locks which is about 165 km and 11 to 15 m deep.
    • Panama Canal
      • Panama Canal connects the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west.
      • The Canal is about 72 km. long and involves a very deep cutting for a length of 12 km. It has a six lock system and ships cross the different levels (Watch Video 26 Meter up and down in Gatun Lake) through these locks before entering the Gulf of Panama. 
      • It shortens the distance between New York and San Francisco by 13,000 km by sea.
    Inland Waterways
    • Inland Waterways: 
      • Rivers, canals, lakes and coastal areas have been important waterways since time immemorial. Boats and steamers are used as means of transport for cargo and passengers.
      • Very heavy cargo like coal, cement, timber and metallic ores can be transported through inland waterways.
    • Rhine Waterways 
      • Rhine Waterways flows through Germany and the Netherlands. 
      • It is navigable for 700 km from Rotterdam, at its mouth in the Netherlands to Basel in Switzerland.This waterway is the world’s most heavily used. 
      • Each year more than 20,000 ocean-going ships and 2,00,000 inland vessels exchange their cargoes.
      • It connects the industrial areas of Switzerland, Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands with the North Atlantic Sea Route.
    • Danube Waterway
      • Danube Waterway is important inland waterway serves Eastern Europe. 
      • The Danube river rises in the Black Forest and flows eastwards through many countries.
    • Volga Waterway
      • Russia has a large number of developed waterways, of which the Volga is one of the most important. 
      • It provides a navigable waterway of 11,200 km and drains into the Caspian Sea.
    • Great Lakes – St. Lawrence Seaway
      • The Great Lakes of North America Superior, Huron Erie and Ontario are connected by Soo Canal and Welland Canal to form an inland waterway.
    • Mississippi Waterways
      • The Mississippi-Ohio waterway connects the interior part of U.S.A. with the Gulf of Mexico in the south. 
      • Large steamers can go through this route up to Minneapolis.
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