Concept of Power and Authority

Concept of Power and Authority: Concept of Power and Authority is one of Topic under RAS Mains Exam new syllabus "Concept of Power and Authority, Responsibility and Delegation" under General & Administrative Management chapter as per new syllabus. We will cover Concept of Responsibility and Delegation in over Next article via various web and text book sources.
Power: In political science we define power as the ability to influence the outcome of events.  Power can be present in any relationship. Many scholars adopt the definition developed by German sociologist Max Weber, who said that power is the ability to exercise one’s will over others (Weber 1922). Power affects more than personal relationships; it shapes larger dynamics like social groups, professional organizations, and governments. Similarly, a government’s power is not necessarily limited to control of its own citizens. A dominant nation, for instance, will often use its clout to influence or support other governments or to seize control of other nation states. In an organization manager exert power on subordinates. Again subordinates can also exert power on his boss by useful suggestions.
Five bases of power:
1. Reward power
2. Coercive power
3. Legitimate power
4. Expert power: Based on the belief or perception that influencer has some special knowledge that influence doesn’t have
5. Referent power: This power is exerted by the influencer with whom a person desire to be identified.

Authority refers to accepted power i.e. power that people agree to follow. People listen to authority figures because they feel that these individuals are worthy of respect. Generally speaking, people perceive the objectives and demands of an authority figure as reasonable and beneficial, or true. Authority is often used more broadly to refer to a person’s ability to exert power as a result of quality such as knowledge or titles such as judge. In terms of our political lives, the president of the India and his administration command authority, or rightful power, for at least a critical mass or majority of Indian citizens.
Three main types of authority:
1. Traditional Authority
: traditional authority is accepted because that has traditionally been the case; its legitimacy exists because it has been accepted for a long time. Britain’s Queen Elizabeth, for instance, occupies a position that she inherited based on the traditional rules of succession for the monarchy. People adhere to traditional authority because they are invested in the past and feel obligated to perpetuate it.
2. Charismatic Authority: charismatic authority is accepted because followers are drawn to the leader’s personal qualities. The appeal of a charismatic leader can be extraordinary, inspiring followers to make unusual sacrifices or to persevere in the midst of great hardship and persecution. Charismatic leaders usually emerge in times of crisis and offer innovative or radical solutions. They may even offer a vision of a new world order. Hitler’s rise to power in the postwar economic depression of Germany is an example.
3. Rational-Legal Authority: power made legitimate by laws, written rules, and regulations is termed rational-legal authority. In this type of authority, power is vested in a particular rationale, system, or ideology and not necessarily in the person implementing the specifics of that doctrine. A nation that follows a constitution is applying this type of authority. On a smaller scale, you might encounter rational-legal authority in the workplace via the standards set forth in the employee handbook, which provides a different type of authority than that of your boss. 


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