MPPSC brings Aptitude Test in exam

Madhya Pradesh Public Service Commission (MPPSC) has decided to discontinue the examination of elective subjects. Deciding to follow the pattern of the UPSC, the state public service commission will replace the elective paper with an aptitude test in the next exam. Concerned officials have roped in experts from different subjects to prepare the pattern of the aptitude test.
The MPPSC’s elective examinations have been hit hard by numerous controversies in the recent past. Questions were being raised over the scaling system of the examination. The matter had also reached the court following which forced the commission to opt for the aptitude test. Experts believe that the new format will not have any adverse affect on the preparation of aspirants. The new pattern will infact be liked by competitors if they have the capability. Aptitude test will help pick able contenders automatically, said Prof. Jayantilal Bhandari.
Questions from all subjects: The MPPSC is planning to include questions from all subjects in future exams. Both prelims and mains exam question paper will have questions from different subjects.
Online application: The MPPSC will soon be introducing online application system for all examinations that it conducts. Applicants will not have to submit marksheet, caste certificate and other important documents at the time of filing the form through the comission’s website.

Rajasthan Mineral Policy 2011 announced

Rajasthan government today announced the state Mineral Policy-2011 to promote value addition in minerals and generate employment while maintaining balance with environment considerations. Announcing the policy after a state cabinet meeting here, Chief Minister Ashok Gehlot said that the last Mineral Policy was implemented 17 years back hence it was necessary to bring a new policy to promote scientific mining and meet the challenges in the sector. "We have prepared the policy keeping environment balancing and corruption in consideration. We want to promote transparency, so several provisions in regard to different process have been made in the policy which would help in curbing corrupt practices," Gehlot told reporters. "Balancing the considerations of environment while mining is a major issue and one of the objectives of the policy is to exploitation of minerals while balancing the environment considerations," he said. In case of mining minerals, a system of disposal through auction will be adopted.
Certain plots will be reserved for societies of unemployed youths belonging to SC, SC, OBC and Special Backward Class categories, unemployed mining engineers dependent of defense martrys. Gehlot informed that the initial term of minor mineral leases will be increased from 20 to 30 years and the total period including renewal will be increased from 60 to 90 years and 26 per cent of profit from new leases in tribal areas will have to be spent on welfare of the tribal areas. "Special efforts will also be made to check illegal mining and the provisions to deal with the offenders will be made more stringent. The viligance wing of the mines department will be strengthened and mineral check posts will be modernise," Gehlot said. He said that no mining activity will be allowed within the notified boundaries of wild life sanctuaries and national parks. When the notification about eco-sensitive zone is issued by the forest department, the mining will be regulated according to the provisions contained in the notification. The mine owner shall be made liable for compulsory maintenance of medical and life insurance policy for each worker and mine safety standards will be strictly enforced, the CM added.

RPSC Ajmer S.I. (Ex-Servicemen) Exam-2008 Result declared

RPSC(Rajasthan Public Service Commission), Ajmer has announced the result of Sub Inspector (Ex-Servicemen) Exam-2008:
For Results visit RPSC Ajmer website link:

DMIC (Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor) Rail route in Rajasthan

Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor(DMIC) is a mega infra-structure project of USD 90 billion with the financial & technical aids from Japan, covering an overall length of 1483 KMs between the political capital and the business capital of India, i.e. Delhi and Mumbai. A MOU was signed in December 2006 between Vice Minister, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) of Government of Japan and Secretary, Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion (DIPP). A Final Project Concept was presented to both the Prime Ministers during Premier Abe’s visit to India in August 2007.
Finally Government of India has announced establishing of the Multi-modal High Axle Load Dedicated Freight Corridor (DFC) between Delhi and Mumbai, covering an overall length of 1483 km and passing through the six States - U.P, NCR of Delhi, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra, with end terminals at Dadri in the National Capital Region of Delhi and Jawaharlal Nehru Port near Mumbai. Distribution of length of the corridor indicates that Rajasthan (39%) and Gujarat (38%) together constitute 77% of the total length of the alignment of freight corridor, followed by Haryana and Maharashtra 10% each and Uttar Pradesh and National Capital Region of Delhi 1.5 % of total length each.

Rajasthan Road Map | Rajasthan Highways Map district wise

Rajasthan Road Map | Rajasthan Highways Map district wise

National Animal of India - Tiger

National Animal of India: Tiger is scientifically known as Panthera tigris. It is a member of the Felidae family and the largest of the four ‘big cats’ of the Panthera genus. On an average, a tiger is about 13 feet in length and 150 kilograms in weight. The pattern of dark vertical stripes that overlay near-white to reddish-orange fur is the distinct recognition of a tiger. By nature, the tiger is a keen predator and carnivore. The Panthera tigris is a native of the eastern and southern Asia. Known as Lord of Jungles due to its grace, agility, power and endurance, Tiger is also the national animal of India.
Choice of Tiger as National Animal: Tiger was chosen as the National animal of India due to its grace, strength, agility and enormous power. As the tiger is also considered as the king of Jungle, it was an obvious choice for the National Animal category. Since time immemorial, the tiger has been considered as a Royal Animal. Often, The Tiger as the National Animal of India symbolizes the power, strength, elegance, alertness, intelligence and endurance of the nation.
Declining Population of Tiger: There is a steep fall in the population of tigers in the world. Due to illegal smuggling of Tiger Skin and other body parts, there are very few tigers left in the world today. According to the World Census of Tigers, there are only 5000 -7000 tigers in the world today. Out of which, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, China and Myanmar claim to have a population of 3000 to 4500 and India alone claims to have a population of 2500 to 3750. In India, out of the eight known races of the Panthera Tigris species, the Royal Bengal Tiger, is found throughout the country except in the north-western region.

National Anthem of India by Rabindranath Tagore

National Anthem of India: National anthem can be described as a patriotic musical composition of a country, which reminds and praises the history, traditions and struggles of its people. At the same time, it has to be recognized as the official national song, either by the nation's government or by convention through use by the people. The national anthem of India is 'Jana-gana-mana', composed originally in Bengali, by Rabindranath Tagore. It was adopted as the national anthem of India, in its Hindi version, by the Constituent Assembly, on 24th January 1950.
'Jana-gana-mana' was first sung on 27th December 1911, long before Indian gained independence, at the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress. The complete song consists of five stanzas. As for the playing time of the full version of the national anthem, it will take up approximately 52 seconds. A short version, consisting of first and last lines of the stanza (playing time approximately 20 seconds), is also played on certain occasions.
National Anthem In Hindi
Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka, jaya he
Tava shubha name jage,
Tava shubha asisa mage,
Gahe tava jaya gatha,
Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he
Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he,
Jaya jaya jaya, jaya he!

National Bird of India - Peacock

Indian National Bird: The Peacock, Pavo cristatus (Linnaeus), is the national bird of India. Emblematic of qualities such as beauty, grace, pride and mysticism, it is a multihued, swan-sized bird, with a fan-shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and a long, slender neck. Much in contrast to the natural phenomenon, the male specie of the bird is much more strikingly stunning than its female counterpart. The male bird, peacock, flaunts a gleaming blue breast and neck and a spectacular bronze-green train of around 200 elongated feathers. It is capable of extending its tail erect like fan as ostentatious display.
The elaborate courtship dance of the male, fanning out the tail and preening its feathers is a beautiful sight. On the other hand, the female bird, peahen, slightly smaller than its male counterpart. Brownish in color, the female bird also lacks the train visible in the male specie. Peacock is predominantly found in the Indian sub-continent, ranging from the south to east of the Indus river. Jammu and Kashmir, east Assam, south Mizoram and the whole of the Indian peninsula also is home to this impeccable bird. The bird lives in jungle lands near water and is thus, chiefly found in the wilds in India (sometimes, domesticated in villages as well).
Peacock is illustrated in pictures accompanying Indian Gods and Goddesses. The sacred bird of the India, the bird was once bred for food, but now hunting of peacocks is banned in India. It is protected not only by a religious sentiment, but also by parliamentary statute. Peacocks have been given full protection under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. Apart from India, it is also involved to the cultures prevalent in Far East, Ancient Persia, Greek and Christian. While the figure of peacock features in various Islamic religious buildings, the bird is symbolic to 'Resurrection of Christ' in Christianity.

National Calendar of India - Saka calendar

National Calendar of India: The Saka calendar used as the official civil calendar in the country is the National Calendar of India. It is used in India besides the Gregorian calendar by the Gazette of India, news broadcasts by All India Radio, calendars and communication document issued by control of Government of India. The Saka calendar, often referred as the Hindu calendar is originally named as Saka Samvat. It is also used for the calculation days of religious significance in the Hindu Religion in the country. You will always find a Saka calendar alongside a Gregorian Calender in an Indian Home.
Formation of Saka Calendar
In the Indian civil calendar, the initial period is the Saka Era. The Calendar is said to have begun with King Salivahana's accession to the throne. It is used as a reference for most astronomical works in Sanskrit literature written after 500 AD. The calculation of ‘thitis’ i.e. dates in this Calendar are done in accordance with the actual positions of Sun and Moon in the universe. In the Saka calendar, the year 2009 AD is 1932.
Adoption of Saka Calendar as National Calendar
The current national calendar of India i.e. the Saka Calendar was adopted as the National Calendar in 1957 by the Calendar Reform Committee which also made efforts to coincide the astronomical data and harmonize the usage of this calendar after rectification of some local errors. It came into usage from March 22, 1957 according to the Gregorian calendar which was actually Saka Era, Chaitra 1, 1879 according to the Saka Samvat. It was adopted as the National calendar in order to synchronize the usage of 30 different kinds of Calendar used in India at that time.
An Overview of the Saka Calendar
Saka Calendar is said to have begun from the vernal equinox of A.D. 79. The usage of the Calendar began from aka Era 1879, Chaitra 1, which corresponds to A.D. 1957 March 22. The Saka Calendar is similar to the Gregorian calendar on the terms that even the Saka calendar has a normal year of 365 days and a leap year has 366 days. In a leap year, an intercalary day is added to the end of Chaitra month of the year. There are 12 months in Saka Calendar which are named as Vaisakha ,Jyestha ,Asadha ,Sravana, Bhadrapada, Asvina , Kartika Margasirsa , Pausa , Magh, Phalgura ,Chaitra.

About National Flag of India - Tiranga

The National Flag of India, also called the 'Tiranga', was adopted during an ad hoc meeting of the Constituent Assembly of the country. The meeting was held on the 22nd July 1947, twenty-four days prior to India's independence from the British (which took place on 15th August 1947). Based on the flag of the Indian National Congress, which was designed by Pingali Venkayya, the flag is also the war flag Indian Army, hoisted daily on military installations. The heraldic description of Indian National Flag is Party per fess Saffron and Vert on a fess Argent a "Chakra" Azure.
Design: National Flag of India has been designed in such a way that it forms a horizontal tricolor, with the colors - saffron, white and green, in equal proportions. The deep saffron (kesari) color is at the top; white is in the middle, while dark green forms the bottom. The ratio of the width of the flag to its length is 2:3. In the centre of the white band of the flag is a navy blue wheel, comprising of 24 spokes, which represents the Ashoka Chakra, seen on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. The diameter of the chakra approximates to three-fourth of the width of the white band of the flag.
Significance: The preamble of the flag code of India describes the significance of the colors and the chakra in the 'Tiranga'. It was amply described by Dr. S. Radhakrishnan in the Constituent Assembly that unanimously adopted the National Flag. Dr. S. Radhakrishnan explained:
“Bhagwa or the saffron colour denotes renunciation of disinterestedness. Our leaders must be indifferent to material gains and dedicate themselves to their work. The white in the centre is light, the path of truth to guide our conduct. The green shows our relation to soil, our relation to the plant life here on which all other life depends. The Ashoka Wheel in the center of the white is the wheel of the law of dharma. Truth or satya, dharma or virtue ought to be the controlling principles of those who work under this flag. Again, the wheel denotes motion. There is death in stagnation. There is life in movement. India should no more resist change, it must move and go forward. The wheel represents the dynamism of a peaceful change..”
Flag Code: After 52 years, the citizens of India are free to fly the Indian National Flag over their homes, offices and factories on any day. On 26th January 2002, the flag code was changed, giving Indians the freedom to proudly display the national flag any where and any time. However, there are still some rules and regulations upon how to fly the flag, based on the 26th January 2002 legislation, which should be followed by the citizens. These rules and regulation includes certain dos and don'ts, which have been explained below.
* The National Flag may be hoisted in educational institutions (schools, colleges, sports camps, scout camps, etc.) to inspire respect for the Flag. An oath of allegiance has been included in the flag hoisting in schools.
* A member of public, a private organization or an educational institution may hoist/display the National Flag on all days and occasions, ceremonial or otherwise, consistent with the dignity and honor of the National Flag.
* Section 2 of the new code accepts the right of all private citizens to fly the flag on their premises.
* The flag cannot be used for communal gains, drapery, or clothes. As far as possible, it should be flown from sunrise to sunset, irrespective of the weather.
* The flag cannot be intentionally allowed to touch the ground or the floor or trail in water. It cannot be draped over the hood, top, and sides or back of vehicles, trains, boats or aircraft.
* No other flag or bunting can be placed higher than the flag. Also, no object, including flowers or garlands or emblems, can be placed on or above the flag. The tricolor cannot be used as a festoon, rosette or bunting.

Indian National Flower - Lotus

National Flower of India: Lotus, botanically known as the Nelumbo Nucifera is the national flower of India. The Lotus plant is basically an aquatic plant with wide floating leaves and bright aromatic flowers which grow only in shallow waters. The Lotus plant has floating leaves and flowers. It has long aerated stems.. The lotus flowers are extremely beautiful with an overlapping proportional motif of petals. It is considered to be a sacred flower and occupies unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India. This flower has been an auspicious symbol of Indian culture since time immemorial.
Choice of Lotus As National Flower
The Lotus Flower symbolizes divinity, fertility, wealth, knowledge and enlightenment. It is also regarded as a symbol of triumph as it can survive to regerminate for thousands of years. Lotus represents long life, honor, and good fortune. Untouched by the impurity despite growing in mud, the flower is also meant to symbolize the purity of heart and mind. It holds additional significance for Hindus, as it is regarded as the symbol of many Gods and Goddesses and is often used in religious practices. It was because of these noble meanings and cultural significance that made the founding fathers of modern India enshrine the lotus in the Constitution as the National Flower.

National Fruit of India - Mango

National Fruit of India: Mango, cultivated in India since times immemorial, is regarded as the National Fruit of the country. Described as the "Food of the Gods", in the sacred Vedas, the fruit is grown almost in all parts of India, except the hilly areas, but is mainly available in the summer season only.. There are more than 100 varieties of mangos in India, in a range of colors, sizes, and shapes. The common names used in context of the fruit are, Mangot, Manga, and Mangou. The eact origin of the term 'mango' is not known. It is believed to have come from the Portuguese term 'manga', which is probably from Malayalam 'manga'.
Mango finds a mentioned in the Indian history as well. In fact, the famous poet Kalidasa is known to have sung its praises. Apart from that, ancient Greek King Alexander the Great and Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang have been said to have savored its taste. Historical records also mention the instance of Mughal Kinf Akbar planting 100,000 mango trees in Darbhanga, known as Lakhibagh. Mangos, liked for their sweet juice and bright colors all around the world, are known to be rich in vitamin A, C, and D.

National Song of India - Vande Mataram by Bankim Chandra Chatterji

National Song of India: Composed by Bankim Chandra Chatterji in Sanskrit, the song Vande Mataram was primarily conceived to serve as a motivation to the people in their freedom struggle. Though it was penned down in 1876, the first publication emerged in the year 1882 in 'Anandamatha' amidst doubts of a ban by the British Raj. Sharing an equal status with Jana-gana-mana (National Anthem of India), the song was first sung in the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress. Vande Mataram served as a voice against British rule during the freedom struggle. Initially, people with patriotic fervor flocked the streets of Calcutta and other metropolis, shouting the slogan 'Vande Mataram' or 'Hail to the Mother (land)!' Terrified by the impending danger, British banned the expression of song and imprisoned freedom fighters, who disobeyed the command. Vande Mataram initially served as the National Anthem of India, but later Jana-gana-mana was adopted as the anthem of independent India. This was because the Muslim sect in India felt that the song was biased, as it depicted the nation as 'Ma Durga', a Hindu Goddess. Though Vande Mataram aptly illustrated the pre-independence national zeal and passion, it was espoused as the National Song of India. In the following lines, we have provided the wordings of the National Song of India and its English translation.
National Song Of India
Vande maataraM
sujalaaM suphalaaM malayaja shiitalaaM
SasyashyaamalaaM maataram ||
Shubhrajyotsnaa pulakitayaaminiiM
pullakusumita drumadala shobhiniiM
suhaasiniiM sumadhura bhaashhiNiiM
sukhadaaM varadaaM maataraM ||
Koti koti kantha kalakalaninaada karaale
koti koti bhujai.rdhR^itakharakaravaale
abalaa keno maa eto bale
bahubaladhaariNiiM namaami taariNiiM
ripudalavaariNiiM maataraM ||
Tumi vidyaa tumi dharma
tumi hR^idi tumi marma
tvaM hi praaNaaH shariire
Baahute tumi maa shakti
hR^idaye tumi maa bhakti
tomaara i pratimaa gaDi
mandire mandire ||
TvaM hi durgaa dashapraharaNadhaariNii
kamalaa kamaladala vihaariNii
vaaNii vidyaadaayinii namaami tvaaM
Namaami kamalaaM amalaaM atulaaM
SujalaaM suphalaaM maataraM ||
ShyaamalaaM saralaaM susmitaaM bhuushhitaaM
DharaNiiM bharaNiiM maataraM |"

National Tree of India - Banayan Tree

The national tree of India, banyan is a very huge structure, long and deep roots and branches symbolize the country's unity. One can find banyan trees in throughout the nation. The huge sized tree acts as a shield, protects from hot sun. This is the reason why the tree is planted near homes, temples, villages and roadsides. In the rural parts of the country, banyan tree is considered as the focal point of the Panchayats and the gathering place for village councils and meetings. The tree is also considered sacred by the Hindus of India. With high medicinal value, banyan is often used as a herb to treat and cure many diseases. Given below is the description of banyan, the national tree of India.

Fundamental Rights of Indian Citizen

Fundamental Rights of Indian Citizen: Indian Government have provided six basic rights to every citizen India. So, as to provide a democratic environment for the peopel of India to live in. Here, we are describing each fundamental right in detail to help you in understanding our constitution. The Fundamental Rights embodied in the Indian constitution acts as a guarante that all Indian citizens can and will lead their lifes in peace as long as they live in Indian democracy. These civil liberties take precedence over any other law of the land. They include individual rights common to most liberal democracies, such as equality before the law, freedom of speech and expression, freedom of association and peaceful assembly, freedom of religion, and the right to constitutional remedies for the protection of civil rights such as habeas corpus.
Six fundamental rights as per the constitution of India:-
1. Right to Equality
2. Right to Particular Freedom
3. Cultural and Educational Rights
4. Right to Freedom of Religion
5. Right Against Exploitation and
6. Right to Constitutional Remedies

Fundamental Duties of Indian Citizen

Fundamental Duties of Indian Citizen: These Fundamental rights have been provided at the cost of some fundamental duties. These are considered as the duties that must be and should be performed by every citizen of India. These fundamental duties are defined as:
It shall be the duty of every citizens of India: -
* To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;
* To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
* To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
* To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
* To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
* To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
* To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures

Indian Prime Ministers list | Prime Ministers duration

Indian Prime Ministers list and Duration
1. Jawaharlal Nehru: Aug. 15, 1947 - May 27, 1964
* Gulzari Lal Nanda:  May 27, 1964 - June 9, 1964 and January 11 - 24, 1966(Interim)
2. Lal Bahadur Shastri: June 9, 1964 - January 11, 1966
3. Indira Gandhi: Jan. 24, 1966 to March 24, 1977  
4. Morarji Desai: March 24, 1977 to July 28, 1979
5. Charan Singh: July 28, 1979 - Jan. 14, 1980
(3). Indira Gandhi: Jan. 14, 1980 to Oct. 31,1984
6. Rajiv Gandhi: Oct. 31,1984 to Dec. 1,1989
7. V. P. Singh: Dec. 2,1989 - Nov. 10, 1990

8. Chandra Shekhar: Nov. 10,1990 - June 21, 1991
9. P. V. Narasimha Rao: June 21, 1991 to May 10, 1996
10. Atal Bihari Vajpayee: May 16 to June 1, 1996
11. H. D. Deve Gowda: June 1, 1996 to April 21, 1997
12. I. K. Gujral: April 21, 1997 - Nov. 28. 1997.
(10). Atal Bihari Vajpayee: March 19, 1998 - May 22, 2004
13. Dr. Manmohan Singh: May 22, 2004 - till date
* There was some earlier debate as to whether Nanda was a Prime Minister or merely an acting Prime Minister, but constitutional experts and historians now agree that he should be regarded as the second Prime Minister of India and his title should not be qualified by the term "acting" (the Constitution does not have a position of acting Prime Minister). By contrast, the constitution does provide for an acting President, who discharges the duties of a President.

Union Territories in India and their Capital

Union Territories in India and Capital
Union Territories -Capital

Andaman & Nicobar -Port Blair
Chandigarh -Chandigarh
Dadra and Nagar Haveli -Silvassa
Daman and Diu -Daman
Delhi -Delhi
Lakshadweep -Kavaratti
Pondicherry -Pondicherry

Indian Presidents list | Presidents duration

Indian Presidents list and Duration
1. Dr.Rajendra Prasad
(Jan. 26, 1950 to May 13, 1962)
2. Dr.Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
(May 13, 1962 to May 13, 1967)
3. Dr.Zakir Husain
(May 13, 1967 to May 3, 1969)
4. Varahagiri Venkatagiri
(May 3, 1969 to July 20, 1969)(acting)
5. Justice Mohammed Hidayatullah
(July 20, 1969 to August 24, 1969)(acting)
6. Varahagiri Venkatagiri
(August 24, 1969 to August 24, 1974)
7. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
(August 24, 1974 to Feb. 11, 1977)
8. B.D.Jatti
(Feb. 12, 1977 to July 25, 1977)(acting)
9. Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy
(July 25, 1977 to July 25, 1982)
10. Giani Zail Singh
(July 25, 1982 to July 25, 1987)
11. R.Venkataraman
(July 25, 1987 to July 25, 1992)
12. Dr.Shanker Dayal Sharma
(July 25, 1992 to July 25, 1997)
13. K. R. Narayanan
(July 25, 1997 - July 25, 2002)
13. A P J Abdul Kalam
July 25, 2002 - July 25, 2007
14. Pratibha Patil
July 25, 2007 - till date

RAS Mains Exam 2008 Result

RAS Mains Exam 2008 Result is declared and available at RPSC Ajmer website: